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THE

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY,

 

FOR THE

 

SERVICE OF THE UNITED STATES,

 

(ARMY AND MILITIA.)

 

WITH THE

 

MANUAL OF HEAVY ARTILLERY, INCLUDING

THAT OF THE NEW IRON CARRIAGE.

 

 

BY

 

JOSEPH ROBERTS,

MAJOR 4TH REGT. ART., U. S. A., AND COLONEL 3D PENN. ART.

 

 

FIFTH EDITION,

REVISED AND GREATLY ENLARGED.

 

NEW YORK:

D. VAN NOSTRAND, 192 BROADWAY.

 

1863

 

 

 

 

 

 

ENTERED, according to Act of Congress, In the year 1863, by

 

JOSEPHROBERTS,

 

In the CIerk’s Office of the District Court of the United States for the

Southern District of New York.

 

 

 

 

 

 

JOHN P. TROW

Printed, stereotyped, and electrotyped.

        46, 48, & 50 Greene Street, 

New York..


 

 

 

 


 

 

 

 

PREFACE TO FIFTH EDITION.

 

 

The following compilation was prepared for the instruction of non-commissioned officers and privates of the Artillery School, where it was in successful use as a text-book. Much of the matter is taken from Burns’ Questions and Answers on Artillery, Gibbon’s Artillerist’s Manual, Heavy Artillery Tactics, the Ordnance Manual, and Kingsbury’s Artillery and Infantry.

The compiler acknowledges his indebtedness to a work on Ordnance and Gunnery, by Captain Benton, for a portion of the matter on Rifle Cannon.

 

FORT MONROE, VA., 1863.


 

 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS.

_______________

 

                                                                                         PAGE


PREFACE TO FIFTH EDITION,     .    .      .   .    .      .    .   .    4
GENERAL TABLE OF CONTENTS,    .                   .            .   6
PROCEEDINGS,   .   .   . .   .   .   .   .   .   .   . .   .   .   .    .   .   7
PART I. SECTION 1.  ARTILLERY INGENERAL,   .  .    .   .   9
   ”               “      2.  GUNS, .   .   .     .   .     .   .   .   .    .      28
   “               “      3.  HOWITZERS, .   .    .    .   .    .     .   .   30
   “               “      4.  COLUMBIADS,  .   .     .   .   .   .   . .    32
   “               “      5.  MORTARS,    .   .    .    .    .    .    .     .  33

   “               “      6.  SEA-COAST ARTILLERY,   .   .    .    .   36   

   “               “      7.  SIEGE ARTILLERY,    .    .   .    .   .   .   39

   “                “     8.  FIELD GUNS AND FIELD BATTERIES, 43

PART II.  SECT.   1.  POINTING GUNS AND HOWITZERS,   64

                           2.  POINTING MORTARS,    .    .    .    .     60
PART III.     CHARGES,   .         .         .     .     .    .      .    .     64

   “     IV.     RANGES,     .   .    .         .   .     .         .         .   . 67
   “      V.     RICOCHET,   .      .   .     .         .   .     .    .   .   .  80
   “     VI.     RECOIL,      .    .    .    .    .    .    .  .     .   .   .   .   84
   “     VII.    WINDAGE,  .   .    .    .    .    .    .    .    .   .   .   .  87
          “VIII.GUNPOWDER,    .     .      .      .      .      .     .     90

 

 

 

 

CONTENTS

 

 

                                                                                        PAGE

PART IX.    PROJECTILES,     .     .     .     .     .     .     .         98

   “      X.    LABORATORY STORES,   .         .         .     .       118
   “     XI.    PLATFORMS,     .     .       .          -      .      .     127

   “    XIl.    ARTILLERY CARRIAGES AND MACHINES,       131

   “   XIII.    PRACTICAL GUNNERY,      .     .      .      .        157

   “   XIV.     RIFLE CANNON,      .       .       .      .      .        161

   “     IV.    MISCELLANEOUS,      .      .      .      .      .        174

 

SEQUEL,—SERVING AND WORKING HEAVY ARTILLERY,   187

 

 

 

 

 

 

PROCEEDINGS.

__________

 

THE following Report was made by the Committee ap­pointed at a meeting of the staff of the Artillery School at Fort Monroe, Va., to whom the commanding officer of the School had referred this work:

 

Your Committee to which has been referred the consid­eration of the work of Captain Roberts, proposed as a text­book for the Artillery Scbool, beg leave to submit the fol- lowing Report, viz:

 

The work submitted by Captain Roberts, and entitled “Hand-book of Artillery,” embraces sections on the follow­ing subjects.

 

(For subjects see Table of Contents, page 5.)

 

Under each of these heads, except the last, the work contains a number of questions and answers. Your Com­mittee have carefully examined each of these questions and their corresponding answers, and find that the answers have been principally drawn from the following sources, viz.:

Gibbon’s Artillerist’s Manual, Light and Heavy Artillery Tactics, and the Ordnance Manual, all of which works have been authorized by the War Department. Wherever the


prescribed authorities furnish the means of answering the questions, they appear to have been followed as closely as possible.

In the opinion of your Committee, the arrangement of the subjects and the selection of the several questions and answers have been judicious. The work Is one which, may be advantageously used for reference by the officers, and is admirably adapted to the instruction of non-commissioned officers and privates of Artillery.

Your Committee do therefore recommend that it be sub­stituted as a text-book in place of “Burns’ Questions and Answers on Artillery.”

(Signed)       I. VOGDES,

                                 CAPT. 1ST ART’Y.

          (Signed)   E. 0. C. ORD,    
                  
                  CAPT. 3D ART’Y.

       (Signed)    J. A. HASKIN,

                                             Bvt. MAJ. AND CAPT. 1ST ART’Y.

             
         
The preceding Report was adopted, and the Staff recommended this work as a book of instruction at the Artillery

School, in lieu of “Burns’ Questions and Answers on Artillery.”

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

_____________

 

 

PART I. SECTION I.

 

ARTILLERY IN GENERAL.

 

 

1.     What is understood by the term ARTILLERY?

Heavy pieces of every description with the im­plements and materials necessary for their use.

2.  how many kinds of pieces are employed in the land service of the United ,States?

Four, viz.: Guns, Howitzers, Columbiads, and Mortars.

3.  How are these distinguished?

According to their use, as Sea-coast, Garrison, Siege, and Field Artillery.

4.  What metals are used in their construction?

All heavy pieces, such as those for sea-coast, siege, and garrison equipment, are made of iron; and those for field service, of bronze.*

5.  What is bronze for cannon?

An ALLOY consisting of 90 parts of copper and 10 of tin, allowing a variation of one part of tin more or less. It is commonly called brass.

 

 

* The 3-in rifled filed gun, lately adopted, is made of wrought iron or steel.

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

6.  Why is bronze used in preference to iron, for field pieces?

   This metal, having greater tenacity and strength than iron, the pieces can be made lighter.

7. In what respect does iron merit a preference?               Iron is less expensive than bronze, and is more
capable of sustaining long-continued firing with larger charges; such pieces are, therefore, better calculated for the constant heavy firing of sieges.


  
NOTE.—In the sieges In Spain, bronze guns could never support a heavier fire than 120 rounds in twenty-four hours, and were never used to batter at distances exceeding 300 yards; whereas, with iron guns, three times that number of rounds were fired with effect, from three times the distance, for several consecutive days, without any other injury than the enlargement of their vents. The comparative power of conducting heat in iron and copper being respectively as 3.743 to 8.932, taking gold at 10.000, it is evident that in practising with iron and bronze pieces of the same calibre, it would soon become necessary to reduce the charges in the bronze pieces, and, also to increase the time between the discharges, to prevent their softening and drooping; while with iron, full charges and rapid firing may be kept up.       

8. What additional objection has been urged to bronze for cannon?

The difficulty of forming a perfect alloy, in con­sequence of the difference of fusibility of tin and copper.

9. What iron pieces are used in the land service?    

3-in. (rifled)fieId gun; 41/2-in. (rifled), 12, 18, and 24-pdr. siege and garrison guns; 32 and          42-pdr. sea-coast guns; 8-in, siege and 24-pdr. garrison howitzers; 8 and 10-in, sea-coast howitzers; 8, 10, and 15-in. columbiads; 8 and 10-in.siege, and 10 and 13-in. sea-coast mortars,              

 

 

 

ARTILLERY IN GENERAL.

 

 

10.  What are the kinds of bronze pieces in use at present?

6 and 12.pdr. field guns; 12-pdr. Mountain howitzer; 12, 24, and 32-pdr. field howitzers; and the 24-pdr. Coehorn mortar.

11. What is a battery?

This term is applied to one or more pieces, or the place where they are served.

12. What regulate the dimensions of a piece?

Its calibre and the tenacity and elasticity of’ the metals employed in its fabrication. Its thickness must be pro-portioned to the effect developed by   the powder; and the length is determined by ex­periment, and should not exceed 27 calibres. The exterior surface of a cannon is composed of several surfaces, more or less inclined to the axis of the bore, the forms of which have been determined by experiment.

13. Why is a piece made stronger near the breech than towards the muzzle?

Because the elastic force of the inflamed gun powder is there greatest, constantly diminishing in intensity as the space increases in which it acts.

14.  What is the length of a piece?

The distance from the rear of the base-ring to the face of the piece.

15.  What is the extreme length?

From the rear of the cascable to the face.

16.  What is the BORE of apiece?

It includes the part bored out, viz.: the cylin­der, the chamber (if there is one), and the conical or spherical surface connecting them.

17.  What is understood by the CALIBRE of a piece

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

The diameter of the bore.

18. How do you ascertain the number of calibers in a piece?
         
Divide the length of the cylinder, in inches, by the number of inches in the calibre.

19.  The number of calibre, being known, howdo you find the length of the cylinder?

Multiply the number of calibres by the calibre  in inches.

20. What is meant by the SIGHTS of a piece?

Artificial marks on the piece for determining the line of fire.

21. How are the sights determined?

Usually by means of the gunner’s level, when the trunnions are perfectly horizontal.

22. What is the LINE OF METAL or the natural line of sight?

A line drawn from the highest point of’ the base-ring to the highest point of the swell of the muzzle, or to the top of the sight, if’ there be one.*

23. What is the axis of apiece?

The central line of the bore.

24.  What is the NATURAL ANGLE OF SIGHT?

The angle which the natural line of sight makes with the axis of the piece.       

25.     What is the DISPART of a piece?    

It is the difference of the semi-diameter of the base-ring and the swell of the muzzle, or the muzzle-band. It is, therefore, the tangent of the naturalangle of sight to a radius equal to the dis­tance from the rear of the base-ring to the highest point of the swell of the muzzle, or the front of the
  
*The line of sight nearest the axis of the piece Is the natural line of sight; the others are artificial lines of sight.

 

 

 

 

 


ARTILLERY IN GENERAL.

 

 

muzzle-band, — the case may be, measured parallel to the axis.

26.  Give the nomenclature of a piece.

The CASCABLE is the projection in rear of the breech, and is composed of the knob, the neck, and the fillet.

The BASE OF THE BREECH is a frustum of’ a   cone, or a spherical segment forming the rear sur­face of the breech.

The BASE-RING* is a projecting band of metal adjoining the base of the breech, and connected with the body of the gun by a concave moulding.

The BREECH is the mass of solid metal behind the bottom of the bore, extending to the cascable.

The REINFORCE is the thickest part of the body of the gun, in front of the breech; if there be more than one reinforce, that which is next the breech is called the first reinforce; the other the second reinforce.

The REINFORCE BAND IS at the junction of the first and second reinforces.

The CHASE is the conical part of the gun in front of the reinforce.

The ASTRAGAL AND FILLETS in field guns, and the chase ring in other pieces, are the mouldings at the front end of the chase.

The NECK is the smallest part of the piece in front of the astragal or the chase ring.

The SWELL OF THE MUZZLE is the largest part of the gun in front of the neck. It is terminated by the muzzle mouldings, which, in field and siege guns,

 

* This hasdispensed with in the brass 12-pdr. of the new pattern (the NapoIeon gun), and in the new model columbiads. All projections on the surface of cannon which are not required for the service of the piece, have been omitted in the late models.

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY

 

consist of the lip and fillet. In sea-coast guns and with heavy howitzers and columbiads, there is no fillet.   In field and siege howitzers, and in mortars, a muzzle-band takes the place of the swell of the muzzle.

The FACE of the piece is the terminating plane perpendicular to the axis of the bore.

The TRUNNIONS are two cylinders at or near the centre of gravity of a gun, by which it is supported on its carriage. The axes are in a line perpendicular to the axis of the bore, and, in our guns in the same plane with that axis.

The RIMBASEs are short cylinders uniting the trunnions with the body of the gun. The ends of the rimbases, or the shoulders of the trunnions, are     planes perpendicular to the axis of the trunnions.

The BORE of the piece includes nil the part bored out, viz. the cylinder, the chamber (if  there is one), and the conical or spherical surface connecting them.

The CHAMBER in howitzers, columbiads, and mortars, is the smallest part of the bore, mid contains the charge of powder. In the howitzers and large columbiads,+ the chamber is cylindrical; and is united with the large cylinder of the bore by a conical surface; the angles of intersection of this conical surface with the cylinders of the bore and vent chamber, are rounded (in profile) by arcs of circles.  In the siege howitzer, the chamber is united with the cylinder of the bore by a spherical sur­face, in order that the shell may, when necessary, be inserted without a sabot.

The BOTTOM OF THE BORE (to facilitate sponging) is a plane perpendicular to the axis, united

 

*By a late order of the War Department, the swell of the muzzle is to be omitted in sea-coast cannon.

+The new columbiad is made without a chamber.

 

 

 

 

 


ARTILLERY IN GENERAL

 

 

with the sides (in profile) by an arc of a circle the radius of which is one-fourth of the diameter of the bore at the bottom. In the columbiads and the heavy sea-coast mortars, the bottom of the bore is hemispherical.*

The MUZZLE, or mouth of the bore, is chamfered a depth of 0.15 inch to 0.5inch varying with size of the bore), in order to prevent abrasion, and to facilitate loading. The TRUE WINDAGE is the difference between the true diameters of the bore and of the ball.

27.  What is the vent?

The aperture through which fire is communicated to the charge.

28.  What is to be observed in reference to the diameter of the vent?

It should be as small as the use of the priming wire and tube will allow.

29.  Why?

As the velocity of the gases arising from the combustion of the powder is extremely great, a large amount escapes through the vent, which contributes nothing to the velocity of the projectile. It therefore follows, that the effect produced by a given charge will diminish as the diameter of the vent increases. Besides, on account of the increase of power in the current that escapes from them, large vents are more rapidly injured than small ones­

30.  What is the diameter of the vent?

0.2 of an inch in all pieces.

31.  What is the position of the axis of the vent?

 

* In the late models, the bottom of the bore is a semi-ellipsoid.

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

In the old models it is in a plane passing through the axis of the bore, perpendicular to the axis of the trunnions. In guns, and in howitzers having cylindrical chambers, the vent is placed at an angle of 80o with the axis of the bore, and it enters the  bore at a distance from the bottom equal to one-fourth the diameter of the bore. The vents of co­lumbiads and mortars of the model of 1881 are in planes parallel to the plane passing through the axis of the bore, and perpendicular to that of the trunnions, and at a distance from it equal to one-half the radius of the bore.  The vents are perpendicular to the axis of the bore; the one on the right of the axis is not bored entirely through to the bore by one inch. The vent of the field and siege pieces of the model of 1861 is at right angles to the axis and in the plane passing through it per. vatic perpendicular to that of the trunnions.

32.  What are the QUARTER-SIGHTS of a piece?

Divisions marked on the upper quarters of the base ring, commencing where it would be intersected by a plane parallel to the axis of the piece, and tangent to the upper surface of the trunnions.

     Note.—Not used In our service. 

33.  To what use are the quarter-sights applied?     

For giving elevations up to three degrees; but especially for pointing a piece at a less elevation than the natural angle of sight.

34.  What is a BREECH SIGHT?

An instrument having a graduated scale of tan­gents, by means of which any elevation may be given to a piece.

35.  How are the divisions of the tangent scale found?

    

 

 

 

 

 

ARTILLERY IN GENERAL.

 

Bytaking the length of the piece, from the rear of the base-ring to the swell of the muzzle, measured on a line parallel to the axis, and multiplying it by the natural tangent of as many degrees as may be required; and then deduct the dispart. Thus, for 50 elevation, and the gun supposed to be 5 feet, or 60 inches long, multiply .08748, which is the natural tangent of 50, by 6O; the product gives 5.2488 inches; supposing the dispart to be 1 inch, the graduating of the tangent scale will be 4.2488 inches.

36.  With what pieces are breech-sights used?

Guns and howitzers.

37.  What is a PENDULUM IIAUSSE?

It is a tangent-scale, the graduations of which are the tangents of each quarter of a degree of ele­vation, to a radius equal to the distance between the muzzle-sight of the piece, and the axis of vibra­tion of the hausse, which is one inch in rear of the base-ring. At the lower end of the scale is a brass bulb filled with lead. The slider which marks the divisions on tile scale is of thin brass, and is clamped at any desired division on the scale by means of a screw. The scale passes through a slit in a piece of steel, with which it is connected by a screw, forming a pivot on which the scale can vibrate laterally.  This piece of steel terminates in pivots, by means of which the pendulum is sup ported on the seat attached to the gun, and is at liberty to vibrate in the direction of the axis of the piece. The seat is of metal, and is fastened to the base of the breech by screws, so that the centres of the steel pivots of vibration shall be at a distance

 

 

 

 

 


ARTILLERY IN GENERAL.

 

 

from the axis of the piece equal to the radius of the base-ring.

A MUZZLE-SIGHT of iron is screwed into the swell of the muzzle of guns, or into the middle of the muzzle-ring of howitzers. The height of this sight of a is equal to the dispart of the piece, so that a line joining the muzzle-sight and the pivot of the tangent-scale is parallel to the axis of the piece.

38. What is a    GUUNER’S-LEVEL, or gunner’s perpendicular!

An instrument made of sheet-brass; the lower part is cut in the form of a crescent, the points of which are made of steel; a small spirit-level is which fastened to one side of the plate, parallel to the line joining the points of the crescent, and a slider is fastened to the same side of the plate, perpendicular to the axis of the level.

 39.  What is it used for?

To mark the points of sight on pieces.

40.What is a PLUMMET?

A simple line and bob for pointing mortars.    
41.  What is a GUNNER’S QUADRANT?

It is a graduated quarter of a circle of sheet-brass of 6 inches radius, attached to a brass rule 22 inches long. It has an arm carrying a spirit level at its middle, and a vernier at its movable end. To get a required elevation, the vernier is fixed at the indicated degree, the brass rule is then inserted in the bore parallel to the axis of the piece; the gun is then elevated or depressed until the level is horizontal.

There is another graduated quadrant of wood, of 6 inches radius, attached to a rule 23.5 inches long. It has a plumb-line and bob, which are car-

 

 

 

 

 

ARTILLERY IN GENERAL.

 

red, when not in use, in a hole in the end of the rule, covered by a brass plate.

42.  What is an ELEVATING ARC, and its use?

It is an arc attached to the rear part of the cheek of a gun-carriage, having its centre in the axis of the trunnions; the arc is graduated into degrees and parts of a degree. By placing the axis of the piece horizontal, and marking the breech at any of the divisions on the arc, any elevation or depression required will be noted by the number of degrees below or above this mark. It turns on a pivot which admits of the arc, when not in use, being placed inside the cheek to which it is attached.

43. What is the use of the cascable?

To facilitate the handling of the piece in mount­ing and dismounting it, and moving it when off its carrIage.

44.  Of what use are the trunnions of a piece? By means of them the piece is attached to its carriage; and by being placed near the centre of gravity, it is easily elevated or depressed.

45.  What are the dolphins of a piece?

Two handles* placed upon the piece with their rule centres over the centre of gravity, by which it is mounted or dismounted.

46.     Are all pieces provided with dolphins ?

Only the 12-pdr. brass guns, and the 24 and 32-pdr. brass howitzers.

47.  What is understood by the preponderance of a piece?

It is the excess of weight of the part in rear of the trunnions over that in front; it is measured by

 

* In the heavy sea-coast mortars they are replaced by a clevis attached to a projection on the piece.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

the lifting force in pounds, which must be applied at the rear of the base-ring to balance the piece when suspended freely on the axis of the trunnions?

48.  Why is this preponderance given?

To prevent the sudden dipping of the muzzle, In firing, and violent concussion on the carriage at the breech.

49. What is bushing a piece of artillery?

 Inserting a piece of metal about an inch in diameter (near the bottom of the bore), through the centre of which the vent has been previously drilled.  It is screwed in. 

50. What kind of metal is used for bushing bronze pieces?        

Pure copper always, which is not so liable to run

from heat as gun metal. 

51.  What is the object of bushing a piece?    

To prevent deterioration of the vent, or provide a new one when this has already occurred.         

52.  Is all new artillery bushed?

No, only rifled and bronze pieces.

53.  How are vents replaced?       

The vent-piece in bronze and rifled pieces is taken out, and a new one screwed in. In other pieces the vent is filled up by molten zinc, clay being placed on the head of a rammer, and pressed against the upper surface of the bore, so as to close the vent on the interior, and a new one is bored two or three inches from the first.

54.     How is artillery rendered unserviceable?

Drive into the vent a jagged and hardened steel spike with a soft point, or a nail without a

*Heavy pieces of the latest models have no “preponderance.”

 

 

 

 

 


ARTILLERY IN GENERAL.

 

 

head; break it off flush with the outer surface and the point inside by means of the rammer.

II.  Wedge a shot in the bottom of the bore by wrapping it with felt, or by means of iron wedges, using the rammer or a bar of iron to drive them in.

Ill. Cause shells to burst in the bore of bronze guns.

IV. Fire broken shot from them with large charges.

V.  Fill the piece with sand over the charge, to burst it.

VI. Fire a piece against another, muzzle to muzzle, or the muzzle of one to the chase of the other.

VII.  Light a fire under the chase of a bronze gun, and strike on it with a sledge, to bend it.

VIIl.  Break off the trunnions of iron guns; or burst them by firing them at a high elevation, with heavy charges and full of shot.

55.  State how to unspike a piece.

If the spike is not screwed in or clinched, and the bore is not impeded, put in a charge of powder ½ of the weight of the shot, and ram junk wads over it; laying on the bottom of the bore a slip of wood, with a groove on the under side contain­ing a strand of quick-match, by which fire is communicated to the charge. In a brass gun, take out some of the metal at the upper orifice of the vent, and pour sulphuric acid into the groove, and let it stand some hours before firing. If this method, several times repeated, is not successful, unscrewthe vent piece if it be a brass gun; and if an iron one, drill out the spike, or drill a new vent.

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

56.  Explain how to drive out a shot wedged in the bore?

Unscrew the vent piece, if there be one, and drive in wedges so as to start the shot forward, then raM it back again in order to seize the wedge with a hook; or pour in powder, and fire it after replacing the vent piece. In the last resort, bore a hole in the bottom of the breech, drive out the shot, and stop the hole with a screw.

 

Note.- When a shot is jammed is a gun and cannot be rammed home to the cartridge, destroy the charge by pouring water down the vent and muzzle until the ingredients we dissolved, and cleared out of the bore; then introduce a small quantity of powder through the vent, and blow out the shot.

 

57.  Explain how to use a piece which has been spiked?

Insert one end of a piece of quick-match into the cartridge, the other being allowed to project from the muzzle. Apply the fire to the match and get out of the way. When quick-match of sufficient length is not at hand, insert one end in the cartridge, the other projecting in front of the shot, and throw two or three pinches of powder into the bore, after they are rammed home. Place another piece of match in the muzzle, one end projecting out.  The fire is applied without danger.

58.  What is sealing a piece of artillery?

Flashing off a small quantity of powder to clean out the bore; about 1/12 of the shot’s weight. The  practice is discontinued.         

59. How are cannon of the old model. in our service marked?

 As follows, viz.: The number of the gun and

 

 

 


ARTILLERY IN GENERAL.

 

 

the initials of the inspector’s name on the face of muzzle,—the numbers in a separate series for each kind and calibre at each foundry; the initial of the name of the founder, and of the foundry number on  the end of the right trunnion; the year of fabrication on the end of the left trunnion; the foundry number on the end of the right rim base, above the trunnion; the weight of the piece in pounds on the base of the breech; the letters U. S. on the upper surface of the piece, near the end of the reinforce.

60.  How are the new pieces marked?

As follows, viz.: the number of the gun, the initials of the inspector’s name, and that of the foundry, the year of fabrication, and the weight of the piece in pounds on the face of the piece, in a circle concentric with the bore, in letters and fig­ures at least one inch long; the numbers, in a separate series for each kind and calibre at each foundry; the foundry number, in small figures, on the end of the right rim base, above the trunnion; the letters U. S., in large characters, on the upper surface of the piece, in rear, but near the trunnions.

61.  What marks are used to designate con­demned pieces?

Pieces rejected on inspection are marked X C on the face of the muzzle; if condemned for erro­neous dimensions which cannot be remedied, add X D; if by powder proof, X P.

62.  What are the kinds of proof which artillery must undergo, before being received into the service?

1st. They are gauged as to their several dimen­sions, internal and external; as to justness and po­sition of the bore, the chamber, vent, trunnions, &c.

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

2d.  They are fired with a regulated charge of  powder and shot, being afterwards searched to discover irregularities or holes produced by the firing.       

3d.  By means of engines, an endeavor is made to force water through them.

4th. They are examined internally, by means of light reflected from a mirror.

63.  Are brass cannon liable to external injury, caused by service

They are little subject to such injury, except from the bending of the trunnions sometimes, after  long service, or heavy charges.

 

NOTE.—Recent experiments at Fort Monroe show that brass guns, when rifled, and fired with large charges and heavy shot, expand so much that the projectile does not take the grooves.

64.  What are the causes of internal injury?

Internal injuries are caused by the action of the elastic fluids developed in the combustion of the powder, or by the action of the shot in passing out of the bore. These effects generally increase with the calibre of the piece.

65.  Name the principal injury of the first kind?

The cutting away of the metal of the upper surface of the bore over the scat of the shot.

86.  Name those of the second kind?

The lodgment of the shot,— a compression of the metal on the lower side of the bore, at the seat of the shot, which is caused by the pressure of the gas escaping over the top of the shot. There is a corresponding burr in front of the lodgment; and the motion thereby given to the shot causes it to strike alternately on the top and bottom of the bore, producing other enlargements, generally three

 

 

 


ARTILLERY IN GENERAL.

 

 

in number: the first, on the upper side a little in advance of the trunnions; the second, on the lower side about the astragal; the third, in the upper part of the muzzle; it is chiefly from this cause that brass guns become unserviceable. Scratches, caused by the fragments of a broken shot, or the roughness of an imperfect one.

67.  When is a piece said to be honeycombed?

When the surface of the bore is full of small holes and cavities.

68.  To what is this due?

To the melting and volatilization of a portion of the tin in the alloy; tin being much more fusi­ble than copper.

69.  How may the durability of bronze guns be increased?

By careful use, and by the precautions of in­creasing the length of the cartridge, or that of the sabot, or using a wad over the cartridge, in order to change the place of the shot; by wrapping the shot in woollen or other cloth, or in paper, so as to di­minish the windage and the bounding of the shot in the bore. In field guns, both bronze and iron, the paper cap which is taken off the cartridge should always be put over the shot.

70.  To what injuries are iron cannon subject?

To the above defects in a less degree than brass, except the corrosion of the metal, by which the vent is rendered unserviceable from enlargement. The principal cause of injury to iron cannon is the rusting of the metal producing a roughness and enlargement of the bore, and increase of any cavities or honeycombs which may exist in the metal.

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

71.  How may you judge of the service of an iron gun!

Generally by the appearance of the vent.  Af­ter about 500 rounds the vent, becomes enlarged to 0.3 inch, and should not be used any longer. In rifled guns the wear of the vent is about twice as great as in smooth bore guns.

72. What rules are laid down for the preserva­tion of artillery.

Cannon should be placed together, according to kind and calibre, on skids of stone, iron, or wood, laid on hard ground well rammed and covered with a layer of cinders or of some other material to prevent vegetation. In case of guns and long howitzers, the pieces should rest on the skids in front of the base ring and in rear of the astragal, the axis inclined at an angle of 40 or 50 with the horizon, the muzzle lowest, the trunnions touching each other; or the trunnion of one piece may rest on the adjoining piece, so that the axis of the trun­nions may be inclined about 450 to the horizon; the muzzle closed with a tompion or plug of dry wood, well saturated with oil or grease; the vent down, stopped with a greased wooden plug, or with putty or tallow.  The pieces may be piled in two tiers, with skids placed between them exactly over those which rest on the ground - the muzzles of both tiers in the same direction and their axes preserving the same inclination.  In case of short howitzers and mortars, the pieces should stand on their muzzles, resting on thick planks, the trunnions touching, the vents stopped.

73. What additional precautions should be ob­served in case of iron pieces?

 

 

 

ARTILLERY IN GENERAL.

 

They should be covered on the exterior with a lacker impervious to water; the bore and the vent should he greased with a mixture of oil and tallow, or of’ tallow and beeswax melted together and boiled to expel the water. The lacker should be renewed as often as necessary, and the grease at least once a year.  The lacker and grease should a applied in hot weather. The cannon should be frequently inspected, to see that moisture does not collect in the bore.

 

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART I. SECTION II.

 

 

ON GUNS.

 

I.   What are GUNS?

Long cannon without chambers.

2.  How are guns denominated!

Smooth bore guns by the weight of their re­spective shot; and rifled guns by the diameter of the bore in inches.          -

3.  What are the principal parts of a gun?

The cascable, breech, reinforce, chase and muzzle.

4.  What proportion usually exists between the length and calibre of a gun?

It varies from 15 to 27 calibres.

5.  What is the natural angle of sight in smooth-bore siege and garrison guns ?

One degree and thirty minutes.

6.  What is it in smooth-bore field guns?

One degree in all except the new 12-pdr., in which it is one degree and six minutes.

7.  Why have sea-coast guns no natural line of sight?

Because the swell of the muzzle is not visible when the eye is on a level with the base-ring.

NOTE—A natural line of sight may be formed by affixing

a front eight to the muzzle, or to a projection cast on time

piece between the trunnions.

 

 

 

 

 

GUNS.

 

 

8.  Upon what are guns mounted?

On field, siege, barbette orcasemate carriages.

9.  What projectiles are used with guns?

Solid shot, shells, spherical-case, grape, and can­ister.

10.  About what are the weights of the different guns?

6-pdr., 884 lbs.; brass 12-pIr., 1,737 lbs., new pattern 1,220 lbs. ; iron 12-pdr., 3,510 lbs., 18-pdr., 4,913 lbs.; 24-pdr., 5,790 lbs.; 32-pdr, 7,200 lbs. ; 42.pdr., 8465lbs. ; 3-in. (rifled) field, 820 lbs.; 44-in. (rifled) siege, 1,450 lbs.

11.  Give the entire length of the several guns.

6-pdr. field gun, 65.6 inches; 12-pdr. field gun, 85 inches, new pattern 72.15 inches ; 12-pdr. iron gun, 116 inches ; 18-pdr., 123.25 inches; 24-pdr., 124 inches; 32-pIr., 125.2 inches; 42-pdr., 129 inches ; 3-in. (rifled) field, 73.3 inches; 4-in. (rifled) siege, 133 inches.

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART I. SECTION III.

 

ON HOWITZERS.

 

I.   What is a HOWITZER?

A chambered piece, of larger calibre than a gun of like weight, and mounted in a similar manner.

2.  What form of chamber is given to howit­zer?

That of a cylinder.

3.  How is it united with the large cylinder of the bore?

By a conical surface, except in the 8-inch siege howitzer, where it is united with the cylinder of the bore by a spherical surface, in order that the shell may—when necessary—be inserted without a sabot.

4.  What advantages are gained by the employment of howitzers?

They project larger shells than the guns with which they are associated, are well adapted for ricochet fire, the destruction of field works, break­ing down palisades, and setting fire to buildings.

5.  What projectiles are used with howitzers?

Shells usually, spherical case, canister, grape and carcasses.

6.  Give the entire length of the several howit­zers?

 

 

 

 


HOWITZERS.

 

 

Iron 10-inch, 124.25 inches; 8-inch sea-coast, 109 inches; 8-inch siege (old), 61.5 inches, (new) 60 inches; 24-pdr. garrison, 69 inches; 32-pdr. field, 82 inches; 24-pdr. field, 71.2 inches; 12-pdr. field, 58.6 inches; mountain, 12-pdr., 37.21 inches.

7.  What is the weight of a howitzer of each kind?

10-inch, 9,500 lbs.; 8-inch sea-coast, 5,740 lbs.; 8-inch siege and garrison, 2,614 lbs.; 24-pdr. garrison, 1,476 lbs.; 32.pdr. field, 1,1)20 lbs.; 24-pdr. field, 1,318 his.; 12-pdr. field, 788 lbs.; 12-pdr. mountain, 220 lbs.

8.  What is the natural angle of sight in siege and garrison, and field howitzers?

One degree.

9.  What in mountain howitzers?

Thirty-seven minutes.

10.  Why have sea-coast howitzers no natural line of sight?

Because the swell of the muzzle is not visible when the eye is on a level with the base ring.

11.  How are howitzers denominated?

Either by the weight of the solid shot they would carry, or by the diameter of the bore in inches.

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

 

PART I. SECTION IV.

 

ON COLUMBIADS.

 

I.   What is a COLUMBIAD ?

A gun of much larger calibre than the ordinary gun, used for throwing solid shot, shells, spherical case, or canister.

2.  What are some of the peculiarities of this gun, when mounted in barbette?

Its carriage gives a vertical field of fire from 50 depression to 390 elevation; and a horizontal field of fire of 3600.

3.  Are these pieces chambered?

Those of the old* pattern have chambers; but they are now made without any.

4.  Give the weight of this piece?

OLD PATTERN, 10-inch, 15,400 lbs.; 8-inch, 9,240 lbs. NEW PATTERN, 15-inch, 49,099 lbs.; 10-inch, 15,059 lbs.; 8-inch, 8,465 lbs.

5.  What is the entire length of this gun?

OLD PATTERN, 10-inch, 126 inches; 8-inch, 124 inches. NEW PATTERN, 15-inch, 190 inches; 10-inch, 136.6 inches; 8-inch, 119.47 inches.

6.  What is the natural angle of sight in this piece?

OLD PATTERN, 8-inch, 10 23’; 10-inch, 10 21’.

NOTE—The great difference between the diameters of the reinforce and muzzle, rendering it impracticable to place an artificial sight on the muzzle, a projection is cast on the upper side of the columbiad, between the trunmons, as a seat for the front sight.

*These are shell guns.

 

 

 

 


MORTERS.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART I. SECTION V.

 

ON MORTARS.

 

I.   What is a MORTAR?

The shortest piece in service; the trunnions are placed in rear of the vent at the breech; the bore is very large in proportion to the length, and is provided with a chamber.

2.  What are the principal advantages obtained By the employment of mortars?

Reaching objects by their vertical fire—such as a town, battery, or other place—whose destruction or injury cannot be effected by direct or ricochet fire; dismounting the enemy’s artillery; setting fire to and overthrowing works; blowing up mag­azines; breaking through the roofs of barracks, casemates, &c.; and producing havoc and disorder amongst troops.

3.  What do you mean by vertical fire?

That produced by firing the mortar at a high elevation:

4.  What are its advantages?

The shell having attained a great elevation, de­scends with great force on the object, in conse­quence of the constant action of the force of gravity on it.

5.  Why are mortars constructed stronger and shorter than other pieces?

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

Because greater resistance is required in con­sequence of the high elevation under which they are fired; and were they longer, the difficulty experienced in loading them would become too great.

6.  Why is a mortar constructed with a chamber?

In consequence of employing various charges, some very small, it becomes necessary to use a chamber to concentrate the charge as much as possible, so that the shell may be acted on by the entire expansive force of the powder.

7.  What form of chamber is given to mortars I

That of a frustum of a cone. The bottom is hemispherical in the sea-coast mortar. In siege mortars it is a plane surface, the angles of intersec­tion being rounded in profile by arcs of circles.

8.  What is this form of chamber called?

Gomer Chamber.

9.  What is the advantage of the conical over the cylindrical chamber?

Cylindrical chambers are objectionable, as the projectile is frequently broken in consequence of the small surface exposed to the action of the charge. This defect is obviated by large cham­bers, and particularly by those that are conical, in which the charge is expended upon nearly a hemi­sphere.

10.  How are mortars designated ?

Usually by the diameter of the bore in inches.

11.  How are mortars mounted?

On beds of wood or iron. Those for the new model mortars are made of wrought iron.

 

 

 


MORTARS.

 

 

 

12.  What is the object of mounting mortars on beds in
preference to wheel carriages?

On account of the high elevation at which they are usually fired, when the recoil, instead of forcing the piece backwards, tends to force it downwards, and this tendency becomes so great at the higher angles that no wheel-carriage could long sustain the shock.

13.   What is the entire length of each mortar? OLD MODEL, 13.inch, 53 inches; 10-inch sea-­coast, 46 inches; 10-inch siege, 28 inches; 8-inch, 22.5 inches; coehorn, 16.32 inches. NEW MODEL, 13-inch, 54.5 inches; 10-inch sea-coast, 47.5 inches; 10-inch siege, 28 inches; 8-inch, 22 inches.

14.  What are the weights of mortars?

OLD MODEL, 13-in., 11,500 lbs.; 10-in, sea­-coast, 5,775 lbs.; 10-in, siege, 1,852 lbs.; 8-in., 930 lbs.; coeborn, 164 lbs. NEW MODEL, 13-in., 17,120 lbs.; 10-in, sea-coast, 7,300 lbs.; 10-in. siege, 1,900 lbs.: 8-in., 1,010 lbs.

15.  What are the weights of the different mor­tar beds?

8-in, siege, 920 lbs.; 10-in. siege, 1,830 lbs.; cochorn, 132 lbs.

16.  What is the diameter of the bore of the coe­horn mortar?

5.82inches.

17.  What is the length of the bore of the differ­ent mortars?

OLD MODEL. 13-in., 39 inches; 10-in. seacoast, 35 inches; 10-in, siege, 20 inches; 8-in., 16 inches; coehorn, 13,07 inches. NEW MODEL, 13-in., 35

 

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

inches; 10-in, sea-coast, 32.5 inches; 10-in. siege, 20.5 inches; 8-in., 10 inches.

18.  What is the length of the chamber of. the different mortars?

13-in., 13 inches; 10-in, sea-coast, 10 inches; 10-in, siege, 5 inches; 8-in., 4 inches; coehorn, 425 inches.

19.     For what was the eprouvette used?

For determining the relative strength of gun­powder.

20.  To what purpose was a stone mortar ap­plied I

To throw stones a short distance, from 150 to 250 yards; and also 6-pr. shells from 50 to 150 yards.

 

NOTE—The firing of 6 or 12-pdr. shells from mortars of large calibre supersedes the use of the stone mortar. To fire these shells from such mortars we employ a strong tub or half barrel, provided with two strong rope handles, and with two additional bottoms, to the lower of which a block of light, dry wood of the diameter and length of the bore, is nailed, the end of the block next the charge being cov­ered with sheet iron. The fuzes of the shells are cut, driven, uncapped, and the shells placed in tiers in the barrel, the fuzes turned down. The last tier Is covered over with hay, which is rammed to keep the projectile in place. After the charge of powder is put in the mortar, and the proper elevation and direction given, the barrel or tub, loaded, is raised by the handles, the block wiped clean, and intro­duced into the bore and set home.

 

21.  In what manner were the stones disposed in this mortar?

They were put into a basket fitted to the bore, and placed on a wooden bottom which covers the mouth of the chamber.

 

 

    

 

 

MORTARS.

 

22.     What use is made of coehorn mortars?

They are fired either from behind entrench­ments like other mortars, or they may accompany troops in effecting lodgments in towns and fortified places.

23.  What kind of projectiles are thrown from mortarst

Shells, fire-balls, and carcasses.

24.  How rapidly may siege mortars be fired?

At the rate of twelve rounds per hour contin­uously; and in case of need with greater rapidity.

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

PART 1. SECTION VI.

 

 

 

SEA-COAST ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

  1.  How are SEA-COAST pieces mounted?

On barbette, casemate, flank casemate, and co­lumbiad carriages; and the carriage upon which the mortar is mounted—called its bed. These car­riages do not subserve the purpose of transporta­tion; the barbette wooden carriage may, however, be used for moving its piece for short distances, as from one front of the work to another.

2.  What number and kind of pieces are required for the armaments of forts on the seaboard?

In our service they are prescribed by the War Department, according to t e character and extent of the work.

3.  What disposition should be made of heavy and light pieces in a fortification?

Heavy pieces should be employed on the sal­ients of the work, or for enfilading channels where a long range is required; light pieces, where the range is shorter.

 

 

 


SIEGE ARTILLERY.

 

 

PART I. SECTION VII.

 

SIEGE ARTILLERY.

 

1.  How are siege-quns mounted?

Usually on travelling-carriages, with limbers.

2.  Of what number and kind of pieces is a siege-train composed?

This must altogether depend on circumstances but the following general principles may be observed in assigning the proportion of different kinds and calibres, and the relative quantity of other sup­plies for a train of 100 pieces:

 

 

GUNS.

{

 

24.pdr., about one-half the whole num-ber,      .      .      .      .      .      .      50

18.pdr. or 12-pdr., one-tenth,      .     10

HOWITZERS.              8-in, siege, one-fourth,      .      .        25

 

MORTARS.

{

 

10-in. siege, one-eighth,     .      .       12 8-in, siege,      .      .      .      .      .     . 3

 

COEHORN MORTARS.

{

 

In addition to the 100 pieces,  6

 

 

 

 

 

 

WALLPIECES,      .      .      .      .      .      .        .           .      40

 

CARRIAGES.

 

For 24-pdr. guns, and 8-in, howitzers, one-fifth

     spare,       .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      . 90

For 18.pdr. and 12.pdr. guns,       .      .      .      .      .     12

For 10-in. mortars, one sixth spare,      .      .      .     .     21

 

 

 

 

 

HANDBOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

For 8-in mortars,      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .      .    4

Mortar-wagons, 1 for each 10-in, mortar and bed,

and for three 8-in, mortars and beds,      .     .  13

Wagons for transporting implements, in trench­ing and miner’s tools, laboratory tools and utensil, and other stores each loaded with about 2,700 lbs., say,      .       .      .      .      .      .      .      .      140

Carts (carrying balls, &c. on the march),      .       .      .       50

Park battery-wagons, fully equipped,      .      .      .      .      28

Park forges,                 .       .       .       .       .       .       .       .          8

Sling-carts, large,       .       .       .       .       .       .       .       . 5

     Do.    hand,       .       .       .       .       .       .       .         4

DRAUGHT H0RSES.

For each. gun and howitzer, with its carriage,        .       .        8

         “     Spare gun-carriage,       .       .       .       .       .       6

         “     Mortar wagon,       .       .       .       .       .       .       8

     “    Battery wagon,       .       .       .       .       .       .       6

    “     Forge,       .       .       .       .       .       .       .            6

    “     Cart,       .       .       .       .       .       .       .       .      2

     “    Sling-cart, large,       .       .       .       .       .       .    2

     “    Spare horses,       .       .       .       .       .        1-10th

Total, about 1,900 horses.

PROJECTILES AND AMMUNITION.

 

 

 

FOR GUNS.

{

 

Round-shot, 800 to each 24 pdr.,1,000

to each 18 and 12 pdr.

Grape and canisters strapped, 20 rounds to each piece.

Spherical-case strapped, 20 rounds to each piece.

 

 

 

 


SIEGE ARTILLERY.

 

 

FOR HOWITZERS.

{

 

Shells, 800 to each 8-in, howitzer. Canisters strapped, 5 to each.

Spher. case strapped. 20 to each

 

 

FOR MORTARS.

{

 

600 shells to each 10-inch.

800   “        “        8-inch.

200 .,. “      “        Coehorn.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Gunpowder, in barrels, 500,000 lbs.

Computing for each 24-pdr. round shot, one-third
                                                         the weight of shot.
          “        “                 18 and 12 pdr. round shot, one
                                                         fourth the weight of shot.
          “        “                 grape, canister, and spherical-
                                           case, one-sixth the weight of shot.

     

          “        “                round of howitzer

                                             am’nition,5 lbs.

         “        “                 round 10-in. mortar

                                             am’nition,7 lbs.

         “        “                  round 8-in. mortar

                                             am’nition,3 lbs.

}

 

 

including charge of shell.

  “       “           round Coehorn mortar ammu­nition, ½  lb.        

3.  WhaI is the best position for guns in order to make a breach?

On the glacis, within 15 or 16 feet of its crest; but if the foot of the revetment cannot be seen from thence, the guns must be placed in the covered way, within 15 feet of the counterscarp.

4.  In what manner should the fire of siege-guns be conducted in order to form a breach?

1st. Make a horizontal section the length of the desired breach along the scarp, at one-third its height from the bottom of the ditch, and to a depth equal to the thickness of the wall.

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

2d.  Make vertical cuts through the wall, not further than ten yards apart, and not exceeding one to each piece of ordnance, beginning at the horizon­tal section and ascending gradually to the top of the wall.

3d. Fire at the most prominent parts of the masonry left standing; beginning always at the bottom and gradually approaching the top.

4th. Fire into the broken mass with howitzers until the breach is practicable.

5 How long would it take to make a break of 20 yards in length?

Breaches of more than 20 yards in length have been opened by way of experiment, and rendered practicable in less than ten hours, by about two hundred and thirty 24-pdr. balls and forty shells in one case, and by three hundred 18.pdr. balls and forty shells in another.

6.  How many discharges can an iron gun sus­tain?

An iron gun should sustain twelve hundred* discharges, at the rate of twelve an hour; but what­ever may be the rate of fire, it is deemed unsafe after that number of discharges. As many as twenty an hour have been made for sixteen con­secutive hours.

*Recent experiments at Fort Monroe, Va., prove this to be a safe estimate of the number of discharges an iron gun can sustain as two new model 10-in. columbiads have been fired, with charges of 14 and 15 lbs. of powder, nearly 4000 times each. One of them pieces was mat bellow and the other mild under the direction of captain Rodman of the Ordnance. In consequence of the action of the elastic force of the piece, due to the combustion of the powder.  In enlarging the vent, the sieges have had new vents bored in them some 7 or 8 times.

 

 

 

 

 

 

FIELD-GUNS AND BATTERIES.

 

 

 

 

PART I. SECTION VIII.

 

ON FIELD-GUNS AND BATTERIES.

 

1.  What proportion of artillery should be al­lotted to an army in the field!

The proportion of artillery to other troops va­ries generally between the limits of one and three pieces to 1,000 men, according to the strength of the army, the character of the troops composing it, the strength and character of the enemy, the nature of the country which is to be the theatre of the war, and the character and objects of the war.

2.  What regulates the selection of the kinds of artillery and the proportion of the different kinds in the train?

Similar considerations to those specified in the foregoing answer. The following principles may be observed in ordinary cases:

 

3 pieces to 1,000 men.

{

 

2/3  guns, of which  

1/3howitz., of which

{

¼ are 12 pdrs.

¾   “   6 pdrs.

{

¼  “ 24or32 prs.

¾   “  12 pdrs.

3.  What is a field-battery?

A certain number of pieces of artillery so equipped as to be available for attack or defence, and capable of accompanying cavalry or infantry in ail their movements in the field.

4.  How many pieces are allotted to a field-bat­tery?

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

Four guns and two howitzers.

5.  Are all field.batteriea alike?

No; field-batteries accompanying infantry are composed of the heavier, and those accompanying cavalry of the lighter pieces, the first manned by foot-artillery, and the latter by horse-artillery.

8.  In what respect does a battery of horse artil­lery differ from one of foot artillery!?

The main difference consists in the cannoneers in a battery of horse-artillery being mounted; in rapid evolutions of foot-artillery they are conveyed on the carriages.

7. What is the composition of a field-battery on the war establishment?

                     KIND OF BATTERY.     12-PR. 6-PR.

GUNS.

{

12:pdrs., mounted....…4

 6-pdrs.,      “        ………………..2

HOWITZERS

{

24-pdrs., mounted…….2

12-pdrs.,     “        ………………..2    

                                                        6       6

CAISSONS

{

For guns………………….8…….….4

For howitzers…………..4           2

                                                       12      6

TRAVELLING FORGES………………………..1            1
BATERRY WAGON          S…………………………...1            1
                                                                                    2       3

Whole No. of carriages with a battery.                  20     14

Ammunition

 

 

For 4 guns,

 

 

 

For 2 howit

 

{

 

Shot……………

Spher. case…

Canisters……..

{

 

Shells………….

Spher. case….

Canisters……..

 

560                        400

224                      320

112     80

896        800

168    120

112    160

42      32

322   312      

Total No. rounds with a battery,                            1218 1112

 

 

 

 


FIELD-GUNS AND BATTERIES.

 

     KIND 0F BATTERY.                             12-PR. 6-PR

 

Draught Horses

{

 

6 to each carriage,  120    84

spare horses, 1-12,   10      7

   Total…………………..      130   91

 

NOTE—For two 32-pdr. howitzer car riages and four caissons, the number of rounds of ammunition is

}

 

Shells…………………112

Spber. case……………84

Canisters………………14

     Total…………………………………    210

8.  What is the composition of a battery of mountain howitzers!

     Howitzers,       .       .       .       .       .       .       .       .   6

     Gun-carriages,       .       .       .       .       .       .       .     7

     Ammunition-chests,       .       .       .       .       .       .   30

                   (48 rounds for each howitzer)

     Forge and tools, in 2 chests,       .       .       .       .        1

    Set of carriage-makers’ tools in 2 chests,       .       .     1

     Pack saddles and harness,        .       .       .       .       33

     Horses or mules,       .       .       .       .       .       .        33

9.  What composes the FIELD-PARK?

The spare carriages, reserved supplies of am­munition, tools, and materials for extensive repair; and for making up ammunition, for the service of an army in the field, form the Field-Park, to which should be attached also the batteries of reserve.

10.  What determines the quantity of such sup­plies!

It must depend in a great measure on the par­ticular circumstances of the campaign.

11.  How is the ammunition which cannot be transported by the batteries carried?

With the park; in caissons, or in store-wagons.

12.  Do any other carriages and stores form part of the Field-Park?

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

Yes; spare gun-carriages, one to each field-battery,

 

Travelling Forges,

Battery- Wagons,

}

 

one or more

of each

 

Spare spokes, 50 to each battery,

Spare Jellies, 20 to each battery,

 

Spare harness, Horse-shoes and nails,

}

 

in boxes.

}

 

 

 

in store wagons

 

 

 

 

Gunpowder, saltpetre, sulphur, charcoal, laboratory paper, percussion-caps for small arms, friction pri­mers for cannon, stuff for cartridge bags, woollen yarn, cotton yarn, glue.

13.  Are any other pieces ever used for field ser­vice!

Yes: sometimes the 12 and 18-pdr. siege guns, and the 8-in. siege howitzer.

14.  For what particular service are these differ­ent pieces most suitable?

The siege pieces for batteries of position; the 12-pdr. battery, for following the movements of infantry, and the 6-pdr. battery for those of cav­alry.

NOTE.—These siege pieces should be placed on the weak­est points of a line, and on heights which either form a key to the position, or from whence the greatest and longest con­tinued effect may be produced.

15.  What are the peculiar advantages of Horse Artillery!

Possessing, from their lighter construction and mounted detachments, much greater locomotive powers than other field-batteries, they are espe­cially adapted for following the rapid evolutions of cavalry, for sudden attacks upon particular points, and for supporting the advance or covering the re­treat of an army.

 

 

 


FIELD-GUNS AND BATTERIES.

 

 

16.  How is a field gun mounted?

Upon a four-wheel carriage, which answers for its transportation as well as for its service, similar to a siege carriage, but lighter, and the limber carrying an ammunition chest.

17.  Where should a battery be placed before the commencement of an action?

As much as possible under cover, by taking ad­vantage of banks, hollow-ways, buildings, woods, &e.

18.  Is it advisable to move a battery at once into action in the field?

No; but if unavoidable, it should be masked as much as possible until ordered to open its fire.

19.  How should a battery lie masked?

It practicable, by covering it with cavalry, in preference to infantry, as the former does it more effectually, and is sooner moved out of the way.

20.  In commencing an action, how should the of a battery be directed?

When the enemy is in line, the fire should be directed over the whole line, and not upon the real points of attack; but when in column, ready to advance, it should be concentrated upon the real points of attack.

21.  How should batteries be placed in relation to the troops with which they are acting?

Upon the flanks of a line, but at such a distance as not to impede its movements, and at the same time to be unfettered in their own; the artillery may thus represent the faces of a bastion, and the line of troops the curtain.

22.  Is the front of a line of troops an advan­tageous position for a field-battery?

On the contrary, it is the worst possible, as

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

offering a double object to the enemy’s fire, and greatly obstructing the movements of the troops; while a position in rear is nearly as bad, as the fire might seriously injure, or at learnt, greatly disquiet them.

23.  In supporting an attack, what precautions are necessary?

The battery should be carefully kept clear of the Intended line of march of our own troops, and such points occupied as may afford the greatest annoyance to the enemy.

24.  How should batteries be disposed with regard to the enemy’s troops?

Generally so as to secure a cross fire on his position, and on all the ground over which he moves to the attack, endeavoring to take him at all times In the direction of his greatest dimensions; that is, obliquely or in flank when in line, and in front when formed in columns. Moderate heights, command­ing as much as possible the surrounding country, should always be taken advantage of, but not such as may prevent operations in advance if required.

25.  Is it imperatively necessary to confine posi­tions for field-batteries to the flanks of a line?

When, from particular circumstances, the front of the army is too extended, and unavoidably di­vided into two lines, it may become necessary to place one or more batteries in the centre, if those on the flanks are unable to sweep the whole front; but great care must be taken not to impede the advance or retreat of the troops when required.

28.  Should the fire of field-batteries be carried n at the same uniform rate?

Certainly not; the destruction of the enemy be-

 

 

 

 

 

 

FIELD GUNS AND BATTERIES.

 

ing the object, it follows that at distant ranges, a greater degree of care hi required in pointing the suns; the fire is slow and steady, and increasing in rapidity as the enemy advances, without how­ever impairing its precision.

27.  Should the fire of field-batteries be carried on in salvoes or otherwise ?

Never in salvoes; but in a regular manner, well sustained, and with distinct intervals between every round, commencing slowly, and increasing in rapidity as the range diminishes.

28.  Is the fire of batteries more efficacious when dispersed than when concentrated?

The effects of the fire will be in proportion to the number of guns brought together, and therefore, in order to strike a decisive blow, this should at once be done.

29.  What projectiles are used with field guns?

Solid shot, spherical case, and canister.

30.  At what distance from the enemy should the several kinds of projectiles be employed with field battery pieces?

Solid shot from 350 yards and upwards; spheri­cal case from 600 up to 1000 yards, although It may be used within the first range; and canister within 350 yards, or up to 400 against extended formations.

31.  What number of rounds can be fired from a field gun in one minute?

Two solid shot or spherical case, or three of canister.

32. Why are more rounds of canister fired in a minute than of solid shot or spherical case!

Because the latter are fired at greater distances

                                                

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

than canister, and require the piece to be carefully shined, thus requiring more time.

33.  What is the smallest number of guns that may with safety be employed in the face of an enemy?

Never less than two, in order to secure a con­tinuous fire and mutual support.

34.  Is the practice of employing field-batteries against those of the enemy recommended?

Only under peculiar circumstances; as for in­stance, when his troops are well covered and his guns exposed, or their fire very destructive.

Their fire should be directed principally against columns of attack, and masses, or upon positions which are intended to be carried.

85.  In what time could a battery come into action into action in the field?

It could come into action and fire one round in 26 seconds, timing from the order “action front,” to the discharge of one piece.

38.  Suppose cavalry to be advancing to attack infantry, and first observed at the distance of a mile, passing over the first half mile at a trot; the next quarter of a mile at the maneuvring gal­lop, and the remaining distance at an increased gallop, terminating with the charge; occupying alto­gether about six minutes: during the last 1500 yards of their advance how many rounds per piece might a battery fire in that time!

Eleven rounds with effect, thus:

From 1500 to 650 yards         . . . . . . . . 8’ 32”—spherical-case.. .7

“   650 to 350 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0’ 48”—solid shot . . . . . 2

“    350 to close quarters.... . .  0’ 84”—canister . . . . . . 2 

37.  What number of rounds could a battery

 

 

 


field guns and batteries.

 

 

fire against infantry, supposing them to pass over 1500 yards in about  16 ¼  minutes!

Thirty-six rounds with effect, viz.:

From 1500 to 650....quick step...9’ 45”—.spher. case   19
   “    650  to 350           “            8’ 50”—sold shot  . . . . . 7
   “     350 to 100            “            2’  5”—canister  .  .  .    8

 

  “     100 to close,

               quarters.

{

 

double quick and the charge.

}

 

0’ 40” - can. 2

 

38.  Should the enemy attempt to force the pas­sage of a river, what is the best position for artillery to oppose it?

Wherever the best cross fire can be obtained order to obstruct and harass him as much as possible; and if he has succeeded in passing over portion, of his troops, it should be directed against their formation.

39.When the enemy is making the passage of a river in retreat, where should your guns be posted

In such a position as to bear upon the batteries that cover the retreat, and also upon his bridges.

40.  In forcing the passage of a river what is most advantageous position for artillery?

The bridge being generally laid in a re-entering angle, batteries should be posted on each side of bridge, and far enough from it to secure a cross-fire on the opposite bank.

41.  Should the indiscriminate expenditure of am­munition be permitted in the field during action?

Upon no account; ammunition should at all times be carefully husbanded, particularly at the commencement of an action, as the want of it at the close may decide the fate of the day; it should also be sparingly used in skirmishes and minor

 

 

 

 


HAND BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

affairs, especially when at a distance from supplies, or in anticipation of a general action.

42.  When should the reserve be employed!

When a particular point of the line requires additional support, a favorable position is to be seized, an impression has been made on the line by the enemy, a forward or retrograde movement is in contemplation, or when a determined attack is to be made on him, then the reserve should came up and take part in the action; and it is of the utmost importance that this should be done as expeditiously as circumstances will permit.

48.  Where should the reserve be placed previous to an engagement!\?

In rear with the second line, out of the range of shot, and as little exposed as circumstances will admit, but always in such a position as to have ready access to the front or rear.

44.  Should guns be lightly abandoned before an enemy?

Never until the VERY LAST EXTREMITY. An artillery-man must never forget that his gun is his proper ARM; that here lies his strength; that here is his post of honor and of duty; also, that the LAST DISCHARGES are always THE MOST DESTRUC­TIVE, and MAY POSSIBLY INSURE THE SAFETY OF THE WHOLE ARMY, OR TURN THE TIDE OF VICTORY IN THEIR FAVOR.

45.  What is the position for cavalry when placed in support of a battery?

On its flank, about the distance of 100 yards,  and as much concealed as possible.

46.  What is the proper position of field-Batteries when infantry squares are attacked by cavalry!

 


 

 

 

 

FIELD-GUNS AND BATTERIES.

 

 

When infantry are formed in squares to resist the charge of cavalry, the guns should be placed inside at the angles of the squares, the limbers, horses, &c., inside. Should the detachments be driven from their guns, they will retire into the square, after discharging their pieces, and taking with them the sponges and other equipments; the moment the enemy has retired, they recommence theirfire. Supposing the infantry formed in echelon of regimental squares, and that the time, or small extent of the squares, would not admit of limbers, &c., being placed inside, then the guns and limbers should be brought up with their broadsides to the front, so as to occupy, if possible, the space between the guns, leaving no intervals for the cavalry to cut through: the prolonge or drag ropes might also offer an effectual momentary impediment to them, if properly stretched and secured.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

PART II. SECTION I.

 

POINTING GUNS AND HOWITZERS.

 

I.   What is meant by the term POINTING a piece?

To point a piece, is to give it such a direction and elevation, or depression, that the allot may strike the object; and the rule (except in case of mortars) is: First give the direction and then the elevation, or depression.

2.  When a shot is fired from a piece, by how many forces is it acted on?

By three.—1st. The impulsive force of the powder, which urges it forward.

2d. The resistance of the air, which tends to stop it.

3d. The force of gravity, which causes it to descend.

3.  Why is it necessary to give a certain degree of elevation to a piece?

Because a shot describes under the action of the above forces a curve called a trajectory, which is situated below the prolongation of the axis of the piece, the extent of its departure from this line increasing with the time of flight. Therefore, the more distant the object, the greater must be the elevation to enable the shot to reach it.

4. How is the direction given to a gun or howitzer?

By directing the line of metal upon the object.

 

 

 

 


POINTING GUNS AND HOWITZERS.

 

5.  How is the elevation or depression given?

The elevation or depression, which depends upon the charge, the distance, and the position of the object above or below the battery, must be ascertained from tables or by experiment, and the proper degree given by means of instruments.

6.  When will the object be struck by merely di­recting the line of metal upon it?

But in one case—when it is at point-blank dis­tance.’

7.  How must the line of metal be directed for all ranges less than the point-blank range, in order to strike it?

So as to pass below the object.

8.  Give a simple rule for firing at objects within point-blank.

Add to the point-blank range the difference be­tween it and the required range, set the scale to the elevation corresponding to this sum, as shown by tables of faring. Then aim the gun directly at the object; now apply the scale, and observe where the visual ray of the scale strikes the ground, and having noted this point, aim the gun directly at it.

9.  How must the line of metal be directed for ranges greater than the point-blank range, in order to strike it?

Above it.

10.  When the line of metal passes over the ob­ject, what instruments must be employed for giving the proper elevation?

The gunner’s quadrant, or the breech-sight..

11.  How is the quadrant used?

After the direction has been given, the quadrant

 

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

is applied, either by its longer branch to the face of the piece, or this branch is run into the bore parallel with the axis, or it may be applied to the upper surface of the lock-piece, making the allow­ance due to its inclination with the axis of the piece, which ought to be previously determined, and the elevating screw turned, or the quoin ad­justed, until the required degree is indicated.

12.  How is the breech-sight used?

It is first set to the elevation corresponding to the distance; it is then applied to the highest point of metal on the base-ring, and by the elevating screw, or quoin, the notch of the breech-sight, the highest point on the swell of the muzzle, and the object, arc brought in the same line.

13.  What is a line thus determined called?

An artificial line of sight.

14.  In the absence of instruments, how may the elevation be given?

By placing one or more fingers of the left hand upon the base-ring, perpendicular to the axis, and using them as a breech-sIght.

NOTE.—In practice, it is well to fire two or three shots to determine the range experimentally, as it is affected by divers causes.

 

15.  Should the line of metal be always directed in the vertical plane passing through the object?

No; as in practice there are circumstances (as, for instance, a strong wind blowing across the field of fire) which will cause a ball to deviate from this plane, it follows that to strike the object, in such a cane, the line of metal must be directed to its right or left; the gunner judging of the distance by ob­serving the striking of the shot.

 

 

 

 


POINTING GUNS AND HOWITZERS

 

NOTE.—The excentricity of a spherical projectile causes it to deviate. If the shot be so placed in the bore that its centre of gravity be to the right of the axis, the deviation will be to the right; if to the left of the axis, the deviation will be to the left; if placed above, the range will be increased, and If below, diminished. The rotation of the earth on its axis is another cause, arising from the fact that points of the earth’s surface not in the same parallel of latitude have dif­ferent rotary velocities, and that a projectile carries with it the velocity of the point of departure. It is found that a projectile, from this cause, will deviate to the right, in the northern hemisphere, no matter in what direction it is fired, the distance depending on the latitude of the place, and on the range and time of flight. A 12-inch shell of 200 lbs. weight, fired under an angle of 450 and having an initial velocity of 900 feet, will deviate 15 to 20 feet to the right of the object.

16.  Is the line of metal a permanent line under all circumstances?

No; in batteries for garrison and sea-coast de­fence, where the platforms are fixed, the line of metal may be considered as nearly permanent; but with siege guns, which are mounted on travelling carriages, the wheels of which arc liable to vary in position from unevenness of ground, or unequal settling in newly constructed platforms, this line is constantly changing. It approximates the higher wheel in proportion to the difference of level be­tween the wheels; and hence, to secure the greatest accuracy of fire, it must be frequently verified; the old marks, if not found correct, should be erased and new ones substituted.

17. When the notches or sights, which are some­times made upon the base-ring and swell of the muzzle in field guns, for aiming the piece are used, how is the error of direction remedied when the wheels are not in the same level?

 

 

 

 

HANDBOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

The piece must be aimed more or less to that side which corresponds to the higher wheel, accord­ing to the inclination.

18.  When the elevation or depression has once been ascertained for any given distance, how may the firing at that distance be facilitated?

By noting some point on the elevating screw or quoin; adjusting some fixed measurement from a point on the stock to another point on the under side of the breech; or by a chalk mark drawn across the face of a trunnion and its corresponding cheek.

19.  When firing either within or beyond point-blank range, may remarkable points on the ground be taken advantage of, in order to furnish an object to aim at?

Yes; some fixed object may often p resent itself which will serve as a point upon which to direct the line of metal. No means should be neglected that may tend to secure accuracy of aim; fort he shot that is thrown away by carelessness in pointing, had better not be thrown at all.

20.  How may precision of fire be secured at sight?

When a fixed object is to be fired at by night, the piece should be directed during the day, and two narrow and well-dressed strips* of wood laid on the inside of the wheels, and two others outside of the trail of a siege carriage, and nailed or screwed to the platform. In case of a barbette carriage, the traverse wheels should be chocked in the proper

 

* To prevent injury to the strip from the recoil they should be nailed at such a distance from the carriage that the apace can be filled up with a strip that can be removed before firing.

 

 

 

 


POINTING GUNS AND HOWITZERS.    

 

position. To preserve the elevation, measure the height of the elevating screw above its box, or take the measure between a point on the gun, and an­other on the stock; cut a stick to this length and adjust the gun on it at each Fire.

21.  Should night-firing with GUNS be limited?

Yes; it should be limited to a small number of rounds, as it consumes ammunition to little ad­vantage.

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

 

 

PART II. SECTION II.

 

POINTING MORTARS.

 

1.  What is the rule for pointing mortars?

First give the elevation, and then the direction.

2.  How is the elevation given?

By applying the quadrant to the face of the piece, and adjusting the quoin until the required number of degrees is indicated.

3.  Are the same means employed for giving mor­tars their direction as those which are used with guns and howitzers?

No; because mortars are usually masked from the object to be struck, by an epaulment or para­pet.

4.  To what are all the methods employed for giv­ing the direction to mortars reduced?

To determining practically two fixed points, which shall be in line with the piece and the object, and sufficiently near to be readily distinguished by the eye. These points being covered by the plummet, determine a vertical plane, which, when including the line of metal, becomes the plane of fire.

5.  What is the simplest manner of directing the mortar?

By means of pointing-wires.

 

 

 

 


POINTING MORTARS.

 

6.  Describe this method?

The two fixed points required are determined by planting two wires upon the epaulment, one upon its crest, and the other about a yard in ad­vance of it, both as nearly as possible in the verti­cal plane passing through the centre of the plat­form and the object. The points being thus es­tablished, the direction is given to the mortar, by causing a plummet held in rear of it, to cover the wires and the line of metal.

7.  In what respects is this method defective ?

Both in accuracy of aim, and the liability of the wires being deranged by the shots of the enemy or by other causes.

8.  Give a better method.

By means of pointing-stakes, by which one of the fixed points is established upon the crest of the parapet or at the foot of the interior slope, and another in rear of the piece. Then by a cord called the pointing-cord, stretched between these two points, with the plummet suspended from it, a ver­tical plane is determined with which the line of metal is made to coincide.

9.  How are the stakes planted?

A stake, a foot or more in length, is driven into the crest of the epaulment, as nearly as practicable in the vertical plane of fire passing through the centre of the platform; sighting by this stake, an­other long one is planted, three or four feet in front of it, in line with the object. To this stake the cord is temporarily attached, and stretched by the first stake, just grazing it, to a point on the ground, one yard in rear of the platform. At this point a third stake is driven. The cord is removed from

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

the second stake, which may now be taken away, and permanently attached to the first.

10. How is the mortar directed?

The cord is stretched to the rear stake, and as near the muzzle band as possible, with the left hand, while the plummet Is suspended against it with the right; or the plummet may be attached to the cord, just in rear of the mortar. The line of metal is then brought into the plane of these two lines.

11.  How does it appear that the mortar is thus PROPERLY directed ?

Because the cord, the plummet, and the line of metal, are evidently in the vertical plane of fire.

12.  What is done in case the shell should strike constantly to the right or left of the object?

The pointing cord is shifted to some notch on the pointing board, to the right or left, until the shell falls at the desired point.

13.  Describe the pointing board.

This is a piece of wood one foot long, two or three inches wide, and one inch thick, having a notch cut in the middle of one side, to fit on the stake and which Is graduated into equal divisions from it~ middle. When not in use, the pointing cord may be wound on it.

14.  Describe another mode of planting the POINT­ING-STAKES.

The mortar being placed upon the middle of the platform, the gunner mounts upon it, and suspend the plummet in front of the muzzle, covering the object. Where the plummet thus suspended cuts the crest of the epaulment, the first stake is driven. A second stake is then driven in the same line be-

 

 

 

 


POINTING MORTARS.

 

tween the mortar and the epaulment. The point­ing cord being attached to the first stake and stretched to the rear, over the point where the plummet touches the top of the mortar, determines the point on the ground at which the rear stake is driven. The first stake is then removed, and the cord attached permanently to the second stake.

When the object cannot be seen from the mor­tar, owing to the interposition of some obstacle, as a parapet or a hill, two persons in sight of each other, one of whom faces the mortar, snd the other the object, must by successive changes of position, place themselves in the vertical plane of fire, and at the points thus determined, stakes must be driven, one of which will serve as the object.

15.  How may precision of fire be secured at night with mortars?

The direction is preserved by nailing or screw­ing two boards to the platform outside of the cheeks; the elevation is marked on the quoin, or the quoin may be nailed in the proper position, or a cleat may be nailed to the bolster.

 

 

 

 


HANDBOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

PART Ill.

 

CHARGES.

 

1.  What is the charge of a piece of artillery?

The powder with which it is loaded.

2.  What is the ordinary service charge of powder for heavy guns?

One-fourth the weight of the shot.

3.  What is it for firing DOUBLE shot?

One-sixth the weight of one shot.

4.  What is the breaching charge?

One-third the weight of the shot.

5.  What kind of charges are used in hot shot firing?

Small charges from one-fourth to one-sixth the weight of the ball.

6.  For what reason?

Because balls fired with small velocities split the wood in a manner which is favorable to its burn­ing;with a great velocity the hole closes, the ball sinks deep, and, deprived of air, chars without set­ting fire to the surrounding wood.

7.  To what depth should hot shot penetrate?

Not deeper than ten or twelve inches.

8.  In ricochet firing, what kind of charges are used?

Light charges generally ; varying from two-thirds to one-eighth of the ordinary charge.

 

 

 

 


CHARGES.

 

9.  In what manner are the charges of mortars regulated?

The charges vary with the elevation; or if the elevation be fixed at any particular angle, they must be determined by the range.

10.  What are the chargeS for field guns and field howitzers?

See Table, page 66.

11.What are the charges for heavy guns, columbiads, and howitzers?

See Table, page (16.

12.  What are the greatest charges of the sea­coast, siege, and coehorn mortars?

See Table, page 66.

13.  What charge is used for projecting fire balls from mortars?

One twenty-fifth the weight of the ball.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK 0F ARTILLERY.

CHARGES FOR FIELD GUNS AND FIELD HOWITZERS.

 

KIND.

 

FOR GUNS.
12           6

pr           pr

FOR HOWITZERS.

32       24       12      MTN

pr        pr        pr

 

For shot...
For spher. case For canister

For shells

lbs.
2.5
2.5
2.0
2.0

lbs.
1.25
1.25
1.

lbs.
. .

3.25
2.5
2.25

lbs.
. .

2.5
2.0
2.50

lbs.
. .

1.25
1.0
1.

lbs.
. .

0.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHARGES FOR HEAVY GUNS, COLUMBIADS, AND

HOWITZERS.

 

GUNS.

 

COLUMBIADS.*

1844

 

 

HOWITZERS.

 

42

pr

 

32

pr

 

24

pr

 

18

pr

 

12

pr

 

10

inch

 

8

inch

 

Siege

8-in.

24 pr

Garri-son

 

SEA-COAST.

 

lbs.
9.

lbs.
8.

lbs.
7.

lbs.
5.

lbs.
4.

lbs.

14

lbs.
8.

lbs.
5.

lbs.

2

lbs.

12

lbs.

8

 

GREATEST CHARGES OF SEA-COAST, SIEGE, AND

COEHORN MORTARS.

SEA-C0AST.

SIEGE.

COEHORNS

13 inch

10 inch

10 inch

8 inch

24 pr

lbs.

20

lbs.
10.

lbs.
4.

lbs.
2.

Ibs.
0.6

 

 

* For the new model 10 and 8-In. columbiads the charges are I5 and 10 lbs. respectively.


 

 

 

 

 

RANGES.

 

 

 

 

PART IV.

 

RANGES.

 

1.  What is meant by the RANGE of a piece of artillery?

The distance from the muzzle to the first graze.

2.  How may the range of a projectile be extended without increasing the charge of powder?

In three modes, viz.: 1st, by raising the piece a higher level; 2d, by giving its axis greater elevation; 3d, by eccentriic projectiles, recent ex­periments having shown that if the centre of gravity be placed directly above the centre of figure, the range is greatly increased.

3.  Define POINT-BLANK RANGE.

The distance from the muzzle of the piece to that point in a shot’s trajectory where it cuts the prolongation of the natural line of sight, a second time.

4.  In what does the French definition for point-blank range differ from ours?

It requires that the natural line of sight should be horizontal.

5.  What is the British definition for point-blank range?

The distance from the muzzle to the first graze when the axis of the piece is parallel to the plane upon which the carriage stands.

6.  Explain by a figure, the position of, and re­lations existing between the line of sight, the line

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

of fire or axis of the piece, and the trajectory, and also what the point-blank range is.

Fig. 1.

ABcF, the line passing through the highest points of the base ring and swell of the muzzle, or the muzzle band, or the top of the sight if there be one, is called the natural line of sight. EPeG is the axis of the piece or line of fire; the curved line PgD, described by the projectile, is called the trajectory, and is entirely below the line of fire, in consequence of the action of the force of gravity giving the projectile a downward tendency. The point D is called the point blank, and its distance from the mouth of the piece, the point-blank range.

7.  Mention some of the causes which vary the point-blank range.

The form of the cannon; the weight or force of the charge; the diameter and weight of the projectile; and the inclination of the line of sight to the horizon.

8.  Why has the form of the cannon an influence on the point-blank range?

Because as the difference between the diameter of the breech and muzzle becomes greater, the angle of sight, BcP= GcF (see fig.) increases, and the point blank D is removed further off; on the contrary, as the diameters approach to an equality, the

 

 

 

 


RANGES.

 

point blank approaches the piece. Within a certain angle, or when there is no angle of sight, as is the case with some old howitzers in which the line of sight is parallel to the axis of the bore, there will be no point blank, as the trajectory will be con­stantly below the line of sight.

9.  What influence has the charge on the point-blank range?

An increase of the charge determines a more distant point blank; its diminution produces a contrary effect; but beyond a charge equal to one-third the weight of the ball, the increase of range is inconsiderable, and the force of the recoil be­comes very great.

10.  How do the diameter and weight of the projectile affect the range?

As the ball increases in size and density, it will overcome with more ease the resistance of the air.

11.  Does the inclination of the line of sight to the horizon have much effect on the point-blank range?

Only when this inclination is very consider­able. For the ordinary inclination, from 00 to 150, above or below the horizon, the difference may be wholly neglected.

12.  What is the effect on the point-blank range of firing upwards under a large angle?

The action of the weight being nearly directly opposed to the impulsive force, the trajectory be­comes compressed and the point-blank distance di­minishes. The contrary effect obtains in firing downwards under a similar angle, as the weight and the force then act in nearly the same direction.

13.  Why may the point-blank be considered con­stant for the same calibre?


 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

The dimensions, charges, and weights of pro­jectiles, being constant, and the inclination of the natural line of sight, except in a very few cases, being comprised between 00 and 150, it follows that for the same calibre, the point blank may be considered constant, and may serve as a point of reference in firing at different distances.

14.  What is the extreme range of a piece of ar­tillery?

The distance from the piece to where the pro­jectile finally rests.

15.  For a given velocity what effect has an in­crease of the angle of fire on the range?

It increases with the angle of fare up to a cer­tain limit, beyond which it diminishes.

10.  What angle gives the greatest range in VACUO?

Forty-five degrees.

17.  When will this angle give the maximum range in practice?

Only for feeble charges, and very heavy projec­tiles.

18.  How is the angle of greatest range in prac­tice affected by a change in the velocity and size of the projectile?

It seems to diminish as the velocity is increased, and as the ball is reduced. For the musket the angle of maximum range varies from 280 to 300 and is nearly 420 for mortars.

19.  Under what angle is a mortar usually fired?

Under the constant angle of 450, and the charge is varied according to the range required.

NOTE.—When mortars are employed in firing on inclined planes, up or down bill, should the inclination be consid­erable, the

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RANGES.

 

angle or greatest range, instead of being 450, is 450+½ the angle which the plane makes with the horizon.

Thus to strike an object elevated 180 above the plane on which the mortar rests, the angle or greatest range would be 450+7½0 = 52½0; if the object was depressed 150, the angle would be 450-7½0=37½0. 

 

20.What are the advantages of this practice?

Economy of ammunition; the recoil being in­considerable, the mortar and its bed receive but little strain; the ranges are more uniform, and the effect of a slight error in the angle of fire is less than with any other.

21.  Is the mortar ever fired at any other angle than 450?

Yes; sometimes at 600.

NOTE—In this casethe range is about one-tenth less than that due to an angle of 450.

22.When is the mortar fired tinder an angle of 600?

When the battery is situated very near the ob­ject assailed, and it is desired that the shells may fall upon the magazines of the besieged. It is evi­dent that projectiles the higher they are thrown up acquire more velocity in falling, besides striking the object more directly and with increased vio­lence.

23.  Under what angle were stone-mortars usually fired?

Under an angle of 600, and sometimes of 750; that, in falling from a great height, the stones might have the maximum force of’ percussion.

24.  Under what angle should grenades be thrown from mortars?

About 330; otherwise they will be buried in

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

the earth, and their fragments will not be sufficiently destructive.

25.  When a gun or howitzer is aimed with the line of metal horizontal, what is the elevation equal to?

The natural angle of sight or dispart.

26.  How is the time of flight for siege mortars at an elevation of 450 determined?

It is nearly equal to the square root of the range in feet divided by four.

 

NOTE.—The quotient gives the approximate time in seconds.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RANGES.

RANGES OF FIELD GUNS AND HOWITZERS.

KIND OF PIECE.

POW-DER

BALL

ELEVA-TION

RANGE

REMARKS.

 

8 pounder Field Gun.

lbs.

1.25

 

 

 

 

 

1.25

 
Shot.

Sph. case.



0       ‘

0

1

2

3

4

5

1

1  45

2

2  45

3

3  15

4

yds.

318

647

867

1138

1256

1523

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

 

 

P.B. Range.

 

 

 

 

Time 2 seconds.

  “    2 ¾ “

  “    3     “

  “    3 ½ “

  “    3 ¾ “

  “    4     “

  “    4 ½ “   

12 pounder Field Gun

Model 1841

2.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.5

Shot.

Sph. case.

0

1

1  30

2

3

4

5

1

1  45

2

2  15

2  30

3

3  30

347

662

785

909

1269

1455

1663

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

 

P.B. Range

 

 

 

 

 

Time 1 ¾ seconds.

   ‘    2 ½      “

   “    2 ¾      “

   “     3         “

   “    3 ¼      “

   “      4        “

   “     4 ½     “

12 pounder Field Gun

Model 1857

2.5

 

 

 

 

 

2.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

Shot.

Sph. case.

Shell.

0

1

2

3

4

5

0  30

1

1  30

2

3

3  30

3  45

0

0  30

1

1  30

2

2  30

3

3  45

325

620

875

1200

1320

1680

300

575

633

730

960

1080

1135

300

425

616

700

787

925

1080

1300

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time 1 Second.

   “    1 ¾  “

   “   2 ½   “

   “    3      “

   “    4      “

   “   4 ¾   “

   “    5      “

Time 0 ¾ Seconds.

   “    1 ¼     “

   “    1 ¾     “

   “    2 ¼     “

   “    2 ¾     “

   “    3 ½     “

   “    4         “

   “    5         “

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

RANGES OF FIELD GUNS AND HOWITZERS. —Continued

 

KIND OF PIECE.

 

POW-DER

 

BALL

 

ELEVA-TION

 

RANGE

 

REMARKS.

 

12 pounder Field Howitzer.

lbs,

1

 

 

 

 

 

­­­2.5

 
Shell.

Sph. case.

0       ‘

0

1

2

3

4

5

2  15

3  15

3  45

yds.

195

539

640

847

975

1072

485

715

1050

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time 2 seconds.

   “    3       “

   “    4       “

 

24 pounder Field Howitzer.

2

 

 

 

 

 

2,5

Shell.

Sph. case.

0

1

2

3

4

5

1  30

2

2  30

2  45

3  15

3  50

295

516

793

976

1272

1322

600

700

800

900

1000

1200

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time 2 seconds.

   “    2 ½   “

   “    3 ¼   ”

   “    3 ½   “

   “    4       “

   “    4 ¾   “

 

36 pounder Field Howitzer.

2,5

 

 

 

 

 

3.25

Shell.

Sph. case.

0

1

2

3

4

5

1  30

2

2  15

2  45

3

3  35

3  45

290

531

779

1029

1203

1504

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

1200

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time 2 seconds.

   “    2 ½   “

   “    3       “

   “    3 ½   “

   “    3 ¾   “

   “    4 ½   “

   “    4 ¾   “

 

Mountain Howitzer.

0.5

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.5

Shell.

0

1

2

2  30

3

4

5

0

2  30

3

4

4  30

170

300

392

500

637

785

1005

150

450

500

700

800

 

 

 

Time 2 seconds.

 

Time 3 seconds.

 

 

Time 2 seconds.

 

Time 2 ¾  sec’ds.

Time 3 seconds.

 

 

 

 


RANGES.

 

RANGES 0F HEAVY ARTILLERY.

 

 

KIND OF PIECE.

 

POW-DER

 

BALL

 

ELEVA-TION

 

RANGE

 

REMARKS.

18-Pdr. Siege and Garrison Gun on Barbette Carriage

lbs.

4.5

 

Shot.

0       ‘

1

1  30

2

3

4

5

yds.

641

800

950

1256

1450

1592

 

 

Point Blank

 

24-Pdr. Siege and Garrison Gun on Siege Carriage.

6

Shot.

0

1

1  30

2

3

4

5

412

842

953

1147

1417

1666

1901

 

 

Point Blank

 

 

32-Pdr. Sea-Coast Gun on Barbette Carriage.

6

8

Shot.

1  45

1

1  30

1  35

2

3

4

5

900

713

800

900

1100

1433

1684

1922

 

42-Pdr. Sea-Coast Gun on Barbette Carriage.

10.5

Shot.

1

1  30

2

3

4

5

775

860

1010

1300

1600

1955

 

8-Pdr. Siege Howitzer on Siege Carriage.

4

 

45 lb. shell.

0

2

3

4

5

12  30

251

435

618

720

992

1241

2280

Time ¾ Seconds.

   “   1 ½    “

   “   2        “

   “   3        “

   “   4        “

   “   5        “

4  24-Pdr. Siege Howitzer on a flank Casemate Carriage.

2

 

 

1 ¾

 

2

17 lb. Shell.

Sph. case.

0

1

5

2

5  30

3  30

295

516

1322

600

1050

880

 

 

 

Time 2 seconds.

   “    4       “

   “    3       “

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

RANGES 0F HEAVY ARTILLERY. Continued.

 

KIND OF PIECE.

 

POW-DER

 

BALL

 

ELEVA-TION

 

RANGE

 

REMARKS.

 

8-in. Sea-Coast Howitzer on a Barbette Carriage.

lbs.

4

 

 

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

8

 

45 lb. Shell.













0       ‘

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

1

2

3

4

5

yds.

405

652

875

1110

1300

572

828

947

1168

1463

646

909

1190

1532

1800

 

10-in. Sea-Coast Howitzer on a Barbette Carriage.

12

90 lb. Shell.





1

2

3

3  30

4

5

580

891

1185

1300

1426

1650

 

Time 3 seconds.

   “    4       “

 

   “    5 ½   “

   “    6       “

10-in. Columbiad.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Axis of gun 6 feet above the horizontal plane.

10

50 lb. Shell.

















Shot

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

20

25

30

5

15

681

1108

1400

1649

1733

1944

2061

2250

2454

2664

2718

2908

3060

3123

3138

3330

3474

3873

1697

3224

Time 1.88 sec’ds.

   “    3.58   “

   “    4.30   “

   “    5.41   “

   “    6.25   “

   “    7.56   “

   “    7.96   “

   “    9.12   “

   “   10.16  “

   “   10.91  “

   “   11.3    “

   “   13.      “

   “   14.08  “

   “   14.25  “

   “   16.      “

   “   18.40  “

   “   20.      “

   “   25.      “

   “     6.20  “

   “   14.19  “

 

 

 

 

 

RANGES.

 

RANGES 0F HEAVY ARTILLERY. Continued.

 

KIND OF PIECE.

 

POW-DER

 

BALL

 

ELEVA-TION

 

RANGE

 

REMARKS.

 

10-in. Columbiad.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Axis of gun six feet above the horizontal plane

lbs.

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

18

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

20

12

 

 

 

 

18

Shell

100 lbs,


Shot

125 lbs.
















Shell

100 lbs.















0       ‘

3

5

8

10

12

20

30

15

30

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

8

10

15

20

25

30

35

39.15

1

2

3

4

5

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

8

10

15

20

25

30

35

yds.

1008

1525

2238

2720

2847

3842

4836

3218

5163

394

753

1002

1230

1570

1814

2037

2519

1777

3525

4020

4304

4761

5433

5654800

1012

1184

1443

1604

448

747

1100

1239

1611

1865

2209

2489

2848

3200

3885

4150

4651

4828

 

Time 3.20 sec’ds.

   “    5.64     “

   “    8.10     “

   “   10.98    “

   “   11.73    “

   “   18.92    “

   “   27.50    “

   “   14.32    “

   “   27.08    “

 

Axis of gun 15 feet above the water.

 

 

 

Shot ceased to richochet on water.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Time 1.9 sec’ds.

   “    3.2     “

   “    3.6     “

   “    5.2     “

   “    6.5     “

   “    8.5     “

   “   10.0    “

   “   12.9    “

   “   16.0    “

   “   23.5    “

   “   26.9    “

   “   34.0    “

   “   36.9    “

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

RANGES 0F HEAVY ARTILLERY. Continued.

 

KIND OF PIECE.

 

POW-DER

 
BALL

 

ELEVA-TION

 
RANGE

 

REMARKS.

 

15-in. Columbiad.

lbs.

40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

45

50

Shell

302 lbs.








315 lbs.










0       ‘

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

12

15

20

25

28

30

25

yds.

273

484

812

1136

1310

1518

1760

1948

2194

2238

2425

2831

3078

3838

4528

4821

5018

4595

4680

 

10-in. Sea-Coast Mortar

10

98 lb. Shell.

45

4250

Time 36 sec’ds.

10-in. Siege Mortar.

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

3.5

4

90 lb. Shell.






45

300

700

1000

1300

1600

1800

2100

Time 6.5 sec’ds.

   “    12      “

   “    14      “

   “    16      “

   “    18      “

   “    19      “

   “    21     

 

8-in. Siege Mortar.

lb.  oz.

0     10

0     13

1

1     2

1     3

1     4

1     5

 

46 lb. Shell.






 

45

 

500

600

750

900

1000

1100

1200

 

Time 10 sec’ds.

   “    11     “

   “    12 ½ “

   “    13     “

   “    13 ½ “

   “    14     “

   “    14 ½ “

 

24-Pounder Coehorn Mortar

oz.

0.5

1

1.5

1.75

2

2.75

4

6

8

 

17 lb. Shell.








 

45

 

25

68

104

143

165

260

422

900

1200

 

 

 

 

 

 

RANGES

RANGES WITH SEA-COAST 13-INCH MORTARS, 200 ELEVATION.

Charge.

Mean time of flight.

Least range.

Greatest range.

Mean range.

lbs.

4

6

8

10

12

14

Seconds

8

9.5

11.66

12.50

14.25

15.25

yards.

840

1209

1653

2010

2369

2864

yards.

877

1317

1840

2128

2688

2780

yards.

869

1263

1744

2066

2528

2722

RANGES WITH 13-INCH MORTARS, AT 450 ELEVATION.

13 –inch mortar.

Powder.

Shell.

Elevation.

Range

 

lbs.

20

lbs.

200

 

450

yards.

4325

RANGES WITH 13-INCH MORTARS, AT 450 ELEVATION.

Charge.

Flight.

Fuze.

Range.

Lbs.    Oz.

7

7                      8

8

8                      8

9

9                      8

10

10                  8

11

11                   8

12

12                   8

13

13                   8

14

14                  8

15

15                   8

16

16                  8

17

17                   8

18

18                   8

19

19                   8

20    

Seconds.

21.4

22.4

23.2

23.8

24.4

24.9

25.4

25.9

26.8

26.7

27.0

27.4

27.7

28.0

28.3

28.5

29.0

29.1

29.2

29.4

29.6

29.8

29.8

30.0

30.2

30.3

30.5

Inches.     10ths.

4               2 ¾

4               4

4               6

4               7 ½

4               8 ¾

4               9 ¾

5               1

5               1 ¾

5               2 ½

5               3 ½

5               4

5               4 ¾

5               5 ½

5               6

5               6 ½

5               7

5               8

5               8 ¼

5               8 ½

5               8 ¾

5               9

5               9 ½

5               9 ¾

6               0

6               0 ¼

6               0 ½

6               1

yards.

2190

2346

2480

2600

2734

2853

2958

3026

3150

3246

3327

3404

3470

3552

3617

3681

3739

3797

3849

3901

3949

3997

4040

4085

4123

4160

4200

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

 

 

PART V.

 

 

RICOCHET.

 

1.  What is understood by RICOCHET FIRING?

That obtained by firing a piece at very small angles of elevation, by which means the projectile which falls on ground of ordinary firmness at an angle not greater than 100, or upon water at 40 or 50, will make one or more bounds. In this case the projectile is said to ricochet.

2.  What is the object of ricochet firing?

To enfilade a face of the enemy’s work, which is effected by causing a projectile to bound along the terreplein of the face with the view of annoying his cannoneers, and dismounting his pieces. It is employed also in harassing an enemy, when formed or in the act of forming behind a rising ground or other obstacle, taking post in a wood, &c.; and in enfilading a line of troops.

8.  What are the peculiar advantages of this fire?

In being able to reach objects which cannot be reached by direct fire, on account of intervening obstacles.

4.  In enfilading a face of an enemy’s work, what is the object to be fired at?

Usually some point of the interior crest of the

 

 

 

 


RICOCHET.

 

parapet which covers a flank of the terreplein to be reached.

5.  What is the POINT OF FALL?

 

The point of the terreplein which is first struck by the projectile, after having grazed the interior crest.

6.  What is the ANGLE OF FALL?

It is the angle made at the poiint of fall by the tangent to the trajectory with a horizontal line in the plane of fire.

7.  How does the angle of fall compare with that of ELEVATION?

It is greater.

8.  Upon what do the charge and elevation de­pend?

Upon the distance of the object from the battery; upon the difference of level between these points; the distance of the desired point of fall from the parapet; the height of the parapet, &c.

9.  If the embrasure be such that the object is masked, how is the piece pointed?

The direction must be given, as with the mortar, by the plummet; this is held by the person who points, in such a manner as to cover both the line of metal and the object. The elevation is then given by the quadrant.

10.  What is the maximum angle of elevation in ricochet firing?

Against troops it should seldom exceed 30 above the surface of the ground occupied by them. Against fortresses, forts, and fortified lines, it varies from 30 to 90 above the horizontal.

11.  At what distance from the object should the ricochet battery be placed?

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

Never at a greater distance than 600 yards.

12.  In enfilading a work, How should the ricochet firing be conducted?

The projectile should be made to graze the para­pet, while in the descending branch of the trajec­tory; and this must be effected by regulating the charges and elevating or depressing the piece until the shot is seen to fall just over the interior crest of the parapet. Light charges are generally used, varying from two-thirds to one-eighth of the ordi­nary charge.

13.  What pieces are best adapted for ricochet fire?

Those which throw heavy shells; for, if used to enfilade a work, the shells lodge and explode in the traverses, and render the guns more liable to be dismounted and their detachments put hors de combat.

14.  What determines the NATURE of the rico­chet?

The angle of fall: it is flattened when this angle does not exceed 40, and curvated when it is be­tween 60 and 100. In the first of these fires, the velocities are great, and in the second small.

15.  What are the charges for a FLATTENED RI­COCHET for siege gun. at an angle of about 30?

See Table, page 83.

16.  What are the charges for a FLATTENED RI­COCHET for siege howitzers at an angle of about 30?

See Table, page 83.

17.  What are the charges for a CURVATED RICO­CHET for a Siege howitzer at an angle of about 100?

See Table, page 83.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

RICOCHET.

 

CHARGES FOR A FLATTENED RICOCHET FOR A

SIEGE GUN.

DISTANCE

ELEVATION

CHARGE

660 yards.

550         

440        

330    “

20 45’

30

30 15’

30 35’

1/12 weight of ball.

1/18     “           “

1/25     “           “

1/35     “           “

CHARGES FOR A FLATTENED RICOCHET FOR A

SIEGE HOWITZER.

DISTANCE

ELEVATION

CHARGE

660 yards.

550    “

440    “

330    “

10 45’

215’

20 15’

20 45’

2 lbs.

2 lbs. 8 oz.

1 lb. 12 oz.

1 lb. 2 oz.

CHARGES FOR A CURVATED RICOCHET FOR A

SIEGE HOWITZER.

DISTANCE

ELEVATION

CHARGE

REMARKS

660 yds.

440    “

330         

220    “

70 30’

   “

   “

   “

1 lb. 4 oz.

1 lb. 1 oz.

      14 oz.

      10 oz.

The weight of the object above the level of the battery being supposed to be twenty feet.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

PART VI.

 

REC0IL.

 

1.  What is meant by the RECOIL of a piece of artillery?

The retrograde motion impressed upon cannon by the discharge is termed the recoil.

2.  What causes the recoil of a piece?

The gas produced by the ignition of the charge in the, bore, expanding with equal force in every direction finds only two ways of escape (the muz­zle and vent); the pressure upon these points will therefore cease, while it will be proportionally in­creased upon the parts directly opposite, that is, the breech and the lower part of the first reinforce, producing in the first case the recoil, and in the other, indirectly, the dipping of the muzzle.

3.  How far does a gun usually recoil?

This depends entirely upon the nature and inclination of the ground upon which the carriagestands, the situation of the trunnions, angle of elevation, comparative weight of the gun and carriage, and upon the strength of the charge.

4.  What proportion does the velocity of the recoil of a piece bear to that of a ball?

Inversely as their weights, or masses.   

5.  What proportion exists between the pressure

acting upon the part of the bore of a piece directly  

 

 

 

RECOIL.

 

opposite the went, and that which occasions the re­coil?

As the square of the diameter of the vent is to the square of’ that of’ the shot.

6. Has the recoil any effect upon the flight of the projectile?

No appreciable effect, the shot being expelled from the gun before it has recoiled a fraction of an inch.

7.  What arc the principal inconveniences aris­ing from the recoil of guns?

The necessity of running up the gun after every discharge, and consequent fatigue to tine men and loss of time; it also necessitates that a greater breadth should be given to the terreplein of a work.

8.  What causes the muzzle of a piece of artil­lery to dip when fired?

The sudden pressure of the gas acting upon the portion of the first reinforce opposite to the vent, causes the piece to strike downwards upon the ele­vating screw or quoin, and the reaction to make the muzzle dip.

9.  What influence has the position of the axis of the trunnions in respect to that of the bore upon the recoil?

If the axis of the trunnions be below that of the piece, the pressure of’ the breech uponthe car­riage will increase. ns the distance between the axles increases; and from this pressure there will arise a friction upon the ground which will diminish the recoil. On the contrary, if the axis of the trunnions be above that of the piece, the breech will have an upward tendency, the recoil will he in-

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

creased, but the carriage, and particularly the axle tree, will be subjected to less strain. Hence, the recoil will be transmitted directly to the trunnions, if their axis (as in our service) be situated in the same plane with the axis of the piece. The size of the trunnions is made proportional to the force of the recoil.

10.  Does the position of the trunnions with ref­erence to the centre of gravity of the piece influence the recoil?

Yes; in cannon fired horizontally, or under very small angles, the portion in rear of the trun­inions is heavier than that in front; an arrangement which increases the pressure of the trail on the ground so as to diminish the recoil. But in pieces fired under large angles, the trunnions are placed In rear of the centre of gravity, for the purpose of increasing the ease of pointing.


 

 

 

 

WINDAGE.

 

 

 

 

 

PART VII.

 

W I N D A G E.

 

1.  What is meant by WINDAGE?

The difference between the diameter of the projectile and that of the bore.

2.  Is it absolutely necessary to allow windage?

Yes, in order to make an allowance for a piece becoming foul, the expansion of shot by heat, the incrustation of rust, and for the tin straps of fixed ammunition.

3.  What advantages are derived from reducing the windage?

An increase in the accuracy of fire; a more extensive range, or an equal range with a smaller charge, as there is less loss of gas; and less injury to the surface of the bore.

4.  Why should the bore suffer less injury by a diminution of the windaqe?

Because in proportion to the decrease of windage there will be less space for the reflections of the shot along the bore, and consequently less injurious power exercised upon it.

5.  What is the loss of velocity by a given windage proportional to?

It is directly as the windage, and inversely as the diameter of the bore very nearly.


 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

6.  What is the loss of velocity by the windage of the ball?

 

 

 

 

KIND OF GUN.

 

 

 

Charge of powder.

 

Initial velocity of ball.

 

Loss of velocity

 by

 Windage

of

1-40th diam.

 

Without windage.

With windage

of 1-40th diam.

 

32-pdr. Sea-Coast

lbs.

4

feet.

1444

feet.

1271

feet.

178

Per cent

12

24-pdr. Siege

4

6

1600

1890

1458

1728

167

167

10

9

12-pdr. 25 calibres

2

3

4

1617

1915

2124

1444

1742

1951

173

173

173

11

9

8

12-pdr, Field, 18 cal-ibres

2

3

4

1529

1793

1992

1370

1635

1834

158

158

158

10

9

8

6-pdr. Field

1.5

1734

1560

174

10

 

7.     What windage is allowed to guns?

 

 

IRON

 

BRASS

 

Sea-Coast

Siege and Garrison

Field

Field

42

32

24

18

12

Rifled

4 ½ in.

Rifled 3 in.

12

6

in.

0.16

in.

0.15

in.

0.14

in.

0.13

in.

0.10

in.

0.05

in.

0.05

in.

0.10

in.

0.09

 

 

 

 

 

WINDAGE.

 

8.     What windage is allowed to columbiads and howitzers?

 

 

COLUMBIADS*

 

 

HOWITZERS

 

IRON

 

IRON

 

 

BRASS

 

Sea-Coast

*Siege and Garrison

 

Field

 

Mntn

10

 in.

8

 in.

10 in.

8

 in.

8

 in.

24 pdr.

32

pdr.

24

pdr.

12

pdr.

12

pdr.

in.

0.12

in.

0.12

in.

0.12

in.

0.13

in.

0.13

in.

0.14

in.

0.15

in.

0.14

in.

0.10

in.

0.10

 

9.     What amount of windage is allowed to mortars?

 

IRON

 

 

BRASS

 

Heavy

 

 

Light

 

Coehorn 24-pdr.

inches.

0.13

inches.

0.13

inches.

0.13

inches.

0.12

inches.

0.14

 

 

 

 

 

 

*Each of the new model Columbiads Is allowed a windage of 0.13 Inch; and the now model 8.in. Siege Howitzer a windage of 0.12 inch.

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

 

PART VIII.

 

GUNPOWDER.

 

1.     What are the ingredients in  GUNPOWDER?

Saltpetre, charcoal, and sulphur.

2.  What are the proportions?

In the United States, 75 to 76 saltpetre, 14 to 15 charcoal, and 10 sulpher.

 

England, 75 Saltpetre,     15 Charcoal    10 Sulphur.

France,   75       “             12 ½   “          12 ½  “

Prussia,  75       “             13 ½   “          11 ½  “

 

3.  What is the combustible ingredient?

Charcoal.

4.  What is the use of saltpetre?

It furnishes the oxygen necessary to support a rapid combustion, and to change the whole mass into gas.

5.  What is the use of sulphur?

It adds consistency to the mixture and intensity to the flame, besides rendering the powder less liable to absorb moisture.

6.  On what dies the quality of gunpowder depend?

On the intimate mixture and proper proportions and purity of the ingredients.

7.  In what does the manufacture of gunpowder consist?

In pulverizing the ingredients, incorporation,

 

 

 

 

 

GUNPOWDER.

 

compression, granulation, drying, glazing, and dusting.

8.  Explain the method of making gunpowder by the pounding mill?

The charcoal in small pieces is first placed in the mortars, with a quantity of water, and pounded for half an hour; after which the saltpetre and then the sulphur, previously pulverized and sifted, are put in, and the whole well mixed with the hand; it is then pounded in the mortars and at the end of each hour, the composition is passed from each mortar into the next.  At the sixth or eighth change, it is then pounded two hours without changing the mortars, in order that it may form into cake.  It is then partially dried, and grained into a graining sieve, or passed between wooded rollers.  The grains are then sifted to separate those which are too course and too fine, and also to separate from each other the different grains for cannon, musket, and rifle powder,  It is then glazed in large glazing barrels, which make 15 or 20 revolutions in a minute.  A charge of 500 lbs. Is thus treated for about 24 hours.  It is then dried either in the open air or in a drying house.  If in the open air, when the sun is too hot, the powder should be covered to prevent the loss of sulphur.  It is then dusted, by being sifted in fine sieves, or through bolting cloths.

9.  What other machines besides the pounding mill are used in pulverizing and incorporating the ingredients of gunpowder?

Rolling barrels, and the cylinder or rolling mill.

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

10.  What advantage is gained by the use of the ROLLING BARRELS?

It lessens the duration and danger of pounding in the mortars. After the ingredients are pulver­ized and mixed in the rolling barrels, the mixture is placed under the pestles of the pounding mill, 10 per cent, of water is added, and it is beaten for three hours only.

11.  Which mill is now generally used?

The CYLINDER MILL, which performs at the same time the operations of pulverizing, incorporating, and pressing the composition. It consists of two cylinders, of marble or cast iron, weighing about fits tons each, rolling in a circular trough of the same material, the inner diameter of which is about three feet; a wooden plough follows the cylinders, to bring the powder towards the centre of the trough. The cylinders revolve ten times in a min­ute, and run from one to three hours on each charge of 50 lbs. of composition.

12.  Does powder inflame instantaneously?

No; its inflammation is gradual and progressive, and in a gun the projectile commences to move be­fore the whole charge is ignited.

13.  Why should gunpowder be grained?

In order to facilitate the transmission of the flame. When the powder is very fine, and in large and compact charges, the flame cannot penetrate it, and it burns slowly and in successive layers.

14.  Which burns quickest, the small or large grained powder?

Before coming to the limit of dust, the smaller the grain, the more rapid the combustion, and the greater the bursting force of the powder.


 

 

 

 

GUNPOWDER.

 

15.  What is the difference between the ignition and combustion of large and small grained powder?

With the large grained, the ignition is more rapid, but the combustion slower; with small grains, the contrary is the case.

16.  Why should the grains be angular?

Because they present a greater surface to the action of the flame, and therefore burn quicker.

17.  Why should powder be free from dust?

Because the dust fills up the intervals between the grains, and forming a compact mass, retards combustion.

18.  To what special purpose arc large and small grained powders applied?

The large for cannon, and the small for small arms.

19.  How is the size of the grain for each kind of powder tested?

By means of sieves or gauges.

20.  How many grains of powder are in 10 gra. Troy weight?

Cannon, 150; Musket, 2,000 to 2,500; and Rifle, 12,000 to 15,000.

21.  What is the object in glazing powder?

Glazed powder does not absorb moisture, or break up in transportation, so much as unglazed.

22.  What is the established mode of proving the strength of powder in the U. S.?

At least 50barrels of powder are thoroughly mixed together.  One barrel of this is proved by firing three rounds from a musket with service charge, if it be musket powder; if cannon powder, from an 8.inch columbiad, with 10 lbs., and a solid shot of 65 lbs. weight, and 7.88 inches diameter; if

 

 

 


HANDBOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

it be mortar powder, from an 8-inch mortar, with 1.25 lbs. and a shell 7.88 inches in diameter, weighing 47.5 lbs. The general character of the grain and its freedom from dust are noted.

23.  How is the initial velocity determined?

By the Ballistic Pendulum, or by the Electro­Ballistic Machine of Navez, or of Capt. Benton. (See Ord. Manual, p. 249.)

24.  How is the strain upon the gun determined?

By the pressure piston of Capt. Rodman. (See Ord. Manual, p. 251.)

25.  What is understood by the GRAVIMETRIC DENSITY of powder?

It is the weight of a given measured quantity. It is usually expressed by the weight of a cubic foot in ounces.

28.  What should be the SPECIFIC GRAVITY of gun­powder?

Not less than 1.75.

27. What is the hygrometric proof of powder?

Samples are placed in shallow tin pans, set in a tub, the bottom of which is covered with water; the pans should be about an inch above the water, and the tub covered. Good powder will not absorb more than 2 ½  per cent, of moisture in 24 hours.

28.bbHow can the relative quickness of two kinds of powder be determined?

By burning a train laid in a circular or other groove, which returns into itself, made in a piece of hard wood: one-half of the groove being filled with each kind of powder, and fire communicated at the junction of the two trains, the relative quickness is readily deduced from observation of the point at which the flames meet.

 

 

 

 


GUNPOWDER.

 

29. What are the qualities of good powder?

It should be perfectly free from dust, uniform in strength and size of grains, angular and irregular in form; in color, brownish black, or slate color; so bard as not to be easily crushed by pres­sure with the finger; and should leave no beads or foulness when flashed in quantities of 10 grs. on a copper plate. It should give the required initial velocity to the ball, and not more than the maxi­mum pressure on the gun, and should absorb but little moisture from the air.

30.  What is the expansive velocity, and pressure of ignited powder ?

The expansive velocity is about 5,000feet per second, and pressure about 2,000 atmospheres.

31.  What is the weight of a cubic inch of pow­der?

About half an ounce; a cubic foot will there­fore weigh about 54pounds, and 32 cubic inches, one pound.

32.  How is government powder packed?

In barrels of 100 lbs. each; the barrels being large enough to allow sufficient space for the pow­der to move when rolled to prevent its caking.

33.  How are the barrels marked?

On both heads (in white oil-colors, the head painted black), with the number of the barrel, the name of the manufacturer, year of fabrication, and the kind of powder,—cannon, mortar, or musket,— the mean initial velocity, and the pressure per square inch on the pressure piston. Each time the powder is proved, the initial velocity is marked below the former proofs, and the date of the trial opposite it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

34.  When powder is injured by dampness, can it be restored!

If the water absorbed does not exceed 7 per cent., it can be by drying. If it has absorbed from 7 to 12 per cent., after drying it remains porous and friable, and is unfit for transportation. In this case it is better to work it over.

35.  How is powder stored?

In magazines especially constructed for the purpose. The barrels are generally placed near the sides, three tiers high, or four tiers if neces­sary; small skids should be placed on the floor sad between the several tiers of barrels in order to steady them, and chocks should be placed at inter­vals on the lower skid, to prevent the rolling of the barrels.

36.  How are the different kinds of powder ar­ranged!

Those barrels of the same kind, place, and date of fabrication, &c., are piled together.

37.  Should it be necessary to pile the barrels more than four tiers high, what is done?

The upper tiers are supported by a frame rest­ing on the floor, or the barrels may be placed on their heads with boards between the tiers.

38. What is necessary for the preservation of the powder?

The magazine should he opened and aired in clear, dry weather, when the temperature of the air outside is lower than that inside. It should not be opened in damp weather if it can be avoided. The ventilators must be kept free; no shrubbery or trees should be allowed to grow so near as to protect the building from the sun.

 

 

 

 


GUNPOWDER.

 

39.  How may the moisture of a magazine be ab­sorbed?

By chloride of calcium suspended in a box un­der the arch, and renewed from time to time.

40.  When the magazine is open, what precau­tions should be observed?

The sentinel or guard should have no fire-arms, and any one who enters it should take off his shoes, or put socks over them. No sword or cane, or any thing which might occasion sparks should be carried in.

41.  How should powder in barrels be transported?

The barrels should never be rolled; they should be carried in hand-barrows or slings made of rope or leather. In wagons, the barrels should be packed in straw, and not allowed to ml, against each other, and the whole covered with thick canvas. In transportation by railroad, each barrel should be carefully boxed and packed so as to avoid all friction. The barrels should have a thick tarpaulin under them, and the cars should have springs similar to those of passenger ears.

42.  What precaution should be used to prevent powder caking?

The barrels should be taken outside the maga­zine and rolled on boards.

43.  Where should cartridge bags be filled?

In the filling room of the laboratory, or a small magazine, and not in the general magazine.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

PART IX.

 

PROJECTILES.

 

I.   What projectiles are made use of in the service?

Solid shot; shells; spherical case, or shrapnel canister; grape; grenades; carcasses; light and fire balls.

2.  What is a solid shot?

A solid sphere of cast iron, almost exclusively appropriated to guns. The gun usually derives its denomination from the weight of the shot, as 6-pr., 12-pr., &c.

3.  What is a shell, and its use?

A hollow sphere of cast-iron, containing powder, which is ignited by means of a fuze; when fired at troops, it should be prepared to burst over their heads, or, if the ground be favorable, to rico­chet a little in front, and plunge into the column. When fired at works or buildings, it should ex­plode after penetration.

4.  What is spherical-case, and what advan­tages does it possess?

It is a shell much thinner than the ordinary shell, and filled with leaden bullets and a charge of powder sufficient to burst it, which is done by means of a fuze as with a common shell at any re­quired distance. It is thus calculated to extend all


 

 

 

 

 

 

PROJECTILES.

 

 

 

the advantages of canister shot, to distances far beyond the reach of that projectile. It is fired both from guns and howitzers.

5.  What are canister shot?

Cylindrical tin cases with iron heads, of calibre suitable for different pieces of ordnance, filled with cast-iron balls arranged in four tiers, and packed in with dry saw-dust; they are fired at ranges not exceeding 400 yards, but their most destructive effects are from 100 to 200 yards.

6.  What are grape shot?

A certain number of iron balls, usually nine, put together by means of two cast-iron plates, two rings, and one pin and nut. Each plate has on the inside three beds for the shot, of a depth equal to half the thickness of the plate, and of the form of a spherical segment, the curvature of which is the same as that of the shot. An iron pin riveted to the bottom iron plate, passes through the centre and also through the top plate, where the whole is secured by a nut and screw.

NOTE—The use of these shot for field pieces has been discontinued, canister answering the purpose of these shot.

7.  How were the balls fixed in the old pattern?

They were placed in tiers around an iron pin attached to an iron tompion at the bottom, and put into a canvas bag, and then quilted around with a strong cord.

S.  What is a grenade?

A shell thrown from the hand, or in barrels from mortars of large calibre, and ignited as other shells by means of a fuze.

9.  How many kinds of grenades are made use of?

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

Hand-grenades and rampart-grenades; six-pounder spherical case may be used for the former, and shells of any calibre for the latter.

10.  To what purposes are grenades applied!

They are useful in the defence of works, the smaller, thrown by hand into the head of a sap, trenches, covered way, or upon the besiegers mount­ing a breach; the larger kinds are rolled over the parapet in a trough.

11.  What is a carcass, and its use?

It is a spherical shell having three additional holes, of the same dimensions as the fuze hole, pierced at equal distances apart in the upper hemisphere of the shell, and filled with a composition which burns with intense power from eight to ten minutes, and the flame issuing from the holes sets fire to every thing combustible within its reach; it is used in bombardments, setting fire to shipping, &e.; and is projected from cannon like a common shell.

12.  What is a substitute for a carcass?

Common shells loaded in the following man­ner: The bursting charge is placed in the bottom of the shell in a flannel bag, over which carcass composition is driven until the shell is nearly filled; then insert four or five strands of quick-match, which must be secured by driving more composition upon it. These shells, after burning as a carcass, explode.

13.  What is a fire-ball, and its use?

It is a projectile of an oval shape, formed of sacks of canvas filled with combustible composi­tion which emits a bright flame. Its use is to light


 

 

 

 

 

 

PROJECTILES.

 

 

up the enemy’s works, and it is loaded with a shell to prevent it from being approached.

14.  What is a light ball?

Light balls are the same as fire balls, except that there is no shell in them, as they are used for lighting up our own works.

15.  What is a smoke ball?

A hollow paper sphere similar to a light ball, and filled with a composition which emits a dense, nauseous smoke; it is employed to suffocate the enemy’s miners when at work, or to conceal one’s own operations; it burns from twenty-five to thirty minutes.

16.  In field pieces to what is the projectile at­tached?

To a block of wood called a sabot.

17.  Are the projectile and cartridge ever at­tached to the same sabot?

Yes, in field guns, and the 12-pdr. field and mountain howitzers; the whole then constitutes a round of fixed ammunition.

18.  What is the arrangement in case of the 32 and 24-pdr. field howitzers?

The projectile is separate from the charge, and the cartridge is attached to a block of wood called the cartridge-block, the object of which is to give a finish to the cartridge and fill the chamber.

19.  What difference is there in sabots for field service?

Sabots for shot, and spherical-case for guns, have one groove for attaching the cartridge—those for gun canisters and for the 12-pdr. howitzer shells, spherical-case, and canisters, have two grooves. Those for the 32 and 24-pdr. howit-

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

 

zers have no grooves; but are furnished with han­dles made of cord, passing through two holes in the sabot, and fastened by knots on the inside.

20.  How are projectiles for field service fastene4 to the sabot?

By straps of sheet-tin, or of strong canvas, when tin or sheet iron cannot be procured.

21. How many straps are employed, and how are they fastened?

For shot, there are two straps crossing at right angles, one passing through a slit in the middle of the other. For shells, there are four straps sol­dered to a ring of tin, or fastened to it by cutting four slits in the ring, into which the upper ends of the strap are hooked, and turned down on the in­side of the ring. The sabots for 32 and 24-pdr. field howitzers having no groove, each strap is fas­tened by one nail on the side, and two under the bottom of the sabot.

22.  What is a CANISTER FOR FIELD SERVICE?

It consists of a tin cylinder attached to a sabot and filled with cast-iron shot.

23.  How is it made?

The cylinder is fastened to the sabot by six or eight nails, and a plate of rolled iron is placed at the bottom on the sabot. It is closed with a sheet-iron cover after being filled, the top of the cylinder being cut into strips ½  an inch long, and turned down over the cover.

24.  In case of heavy guns are the shot attached to the sabot?

They are generally without a sabot.

25.  How is it with shells and spherical case?

Except for the 8-inch siege howitzer, they are all

 

 

 

 


PROJECTILES.

 

 

 

strapped to sabots made of thick plank, with strips of tin, as in case of strapping shot for field service.

26.  How is it with canister for siege and sea coast guns?

They have no sabot; the tin is turned over the iron bottom.

27.  How is it with canisters for the 8-in, siege and sea-coast howitzers?

They are attached to sabots in the same way as the field-howitzer canisters. The sabot for the siege howitzer has a hemispherical bottom and the sea­coast a conical one, to suit the connecting surface between the cylinder of the bore and the chamber in these Pieces.

28.  Are sabots used with grape shot?

Yes, in the 8-inch sea-coast howitzer.

29.  What is its form, and how fastened?

It is conical; and may be fastened to the lower plate with screws, or the pin may be made long enough to pass through it; or else the sabot may be inserted into the piece separately from the stand of grape.

30.  What is the object of fixing shot or shells to wooden bottoms?

To prevent injury to brass cannon; and to in­sure the fuze of a shell being retained in or near the axis of the piece.

31.  What proportion does the weight of one shot bear to that of another!

The proportion is, as the cubes of their diameters.

32.  How is the weight of a cast-iron shot or shell determined!

Multiply the cube of the diameter of the shot


 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

in inches, or the difference of the cubes of the ex­terior and interior diameters of the shell by 0.134 for the weight in pounds. Incase of lead balls, the multiplier is 0.214.

 

The cube of the radius in inches of a cast-iron shot will be very nearly equal total weight in pounds.

 

33.  How is the diameter of a cast-iron shot of a given weight found?

Divide the weight in pounds by 0.134, and ex­tract the cube root of the quotient, which will be the diameter in inches.

34.  How is the quantity of powder which a shell will contain found?

Multiply the cube of the interior diameter of the shell in inches, by 0.01744 for the weight of powder in pounds.

 

Note.—These multipliers are found as follows: Suppose W to represent the weight of a body, D its density, V its volume, and g the weight of the unit of mass, then W=DVg Now, if a cubic inch of distilled water at the standard temperature be taken as the unit of mass, g will be numerically 62.5/1728 pounds. Hence, W=DV 62.5/1728=0.O36201DV

                x

=O.O362OlDd3 (supposing d to be the diameter and the

               6

body to be spherical)=O.036201 x 0.5238Dd3=O.O18955Dd3. If we now substitute for D the specific gravity of cast-iron shot or shells=7.OOO, we have W=7 x 0.O18955d3=O.134d’; and if for D we substitute the specific gravity of lead, W= 0.2142d3 ;and in case of powder W=O.01744d3.

For diameters, weights, and charges, see Tables, pages

114—117.

 

35.  When shot are heated to a white heat, what expansion takes place?

 

 

 

 


PROJECTILES.

 

 

Calibre

 

 

8-in.

 

42

 

32

 

24

 

18

 

12

 

Expansion…….inches

 

 

0.149

 

0.11

 

0.10

 

0.08

 

0.06

 

0.04

 

36.  Do heated shot retain a permanent enlarge­ment?

Yes; in case of the 8-in, shot, for example, after the first cooling the enlargement is 0.054 in.; and, after the second, 0.099 in.

37.  Are the igniting powers of a hot shot de­stroyed by ricochetting upon the water?

No; a shot, properly heated, will ignite wood after having struck the water several times.

38.  What is the peculiarity of cartridges for hot shot?

There are two cartridge bags, one being in­serted, choke foremost in another of the next higher calibre, and the end of the latter folded under.

39.  Explain the process of loading with hot shot.

The piece should be sponged with great care, and the worm frequently passed into the bore. As a precaution, it is well to insert a wet sponge just before putting in the ball. The muzzle is suffi­ciently elevated to allow the ball to roll down the bore, the cartridge is inserted, the mouth of the outer bag foremost, the fold down, and carefully pushed home without breaking it; a dry hay-wad is placed upon it, and rammed once;then a clay or wet hay-wad, and rammed twice; and finally, if firing at angles of depression, a wad of clay a half-calibre in length, or a wet hay-wad is puton the ball.


 

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

40.  May the ball cool in the gun without igniting the charge?

Yes, with proper precaution in loading. The piece, however, should be fired with as little delay as possible, as the vapor, which arises from the action of the hot ball on the water contained in the wad, diminishes the strength of the powder.

41.  What means are afforded at the sea-board forts for heating shot?

Furnaces for this purpose are erected, which hold 60 or more shot.

42.  What length of time is required to heat them to a red heat!

The shot being placed and the furnace cold, iti requires one hour and fifteen minutes; but after the furnace is once heated, a 24-pdr. shot is brought to a red heat in twenty-five minutes; the 32-pdr. and 42.pdr. shot require a few minutes longer.

43.  Describe grates for heating shot.

In siege and other batteries, where there are no furnaces, a grate is used. It consists of four bars 1.75 inches square, three feet long, placed four inches apart on three iron stands, with legs one foot in height. It is placed in an excavation one foot in depth, of the width of the grate, perpendicular at the back and side, open in front, the legs resting on bricks or stones rising about four or five inches from the bottom. A reef is made over it with hoops of flat iron, covered with sods and eighteen inches of earth, having in the back part a chimney six inches square. The shot are placed on the back part of the grate, leaving one-fourth of the front part free; and under and on the front part the wood is put, cut in pieces about fourteen inches


 

 

 

 

 

 

PROJECTILES.

 

 

 

long and two inches thick. A thick sod is used as a register, to regulate the draught of the chimney, so that no flame can issue from the front. This grate, which will contain about fifteen 24.pdr. balls, heats them to a red heat in an hour, and will sup­ply three guns.

46.     How are wads for firing hot shot made?

Of hay; by twisting from the hay a rope of an inch or an inch and a half in diameter, and then commencing at one end, and doubling it up about one  caliber in length, twisting it all the time until it becomes nearly large enough, when the rope is wound around the wad perpendicular to its axis, and fastened with a hitch. Or the hay may be rammed in a form of proper  caliber, and then bound with spun yarn, and afterwards rammed a second time.

46.     Have hot shot been almost entirely super­seded?

Yes; since the adoption of the method of throw­ing large hollow shot from long pieces. These re­quire but little preparation, can be used at once, and are more terrible in their effects.

46.     What are  ring or GROMMET wads, and their use?

They consist of a ring of rope yarn* about 0.7 in. thick, with two pieces of strong twine tied across at right angles to each other. The size of the ring is the full diameter of the bore, in order that it may fit tight, and stop the windage. They increase the accuracy of fire, and are to be preferred when the object of the wad is to retain the ball in its place, as in firing at a depression. They stop the windage best when placed behind the ball.

*They may also be made of straw formed Into rings of the proper size, and wrapped with twine, and tied to the ball.

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

They may be attached to the straps, or to the ball by twine, or may be inserted like other wads after the ball.

47.  How are JUNK-WADS made; and for what are they used?

Wad-moulds for each calibre,—consisting of two cast-iron cylinders of different diameters set in oak, or of two strong pieces of oak, strapped with iron, and joined by a hinge,—are employed in their manufacture. The junk, after having been picked, is compressed by being beaten in the smaller mould with a maul and cylindrical drift—the lat­ter nearly of the size of the mould—until it as­sumes the requisite dimensions; it is then taken out by raising the upper part of the mould, and closely wrapped with rope yarn, passed over it in the direction of the axis of the cylinder, and fas­tened by a few turns around the middle of the wad. It is then placed in the large mould, and again beaten with the maul and drift until its diam­eter is increased to that of the mould, when it is taken out and its diameter verified by a wooden gauge corresponding to the large shot-gauge of the calibre. These wads are used for proving cannon.

48.  Describe the process of loading field-shells.

They are set up on their sabots, the charges measured out in the proper powder-measure, and poured in through a copper funnel. The fuze~plugs are then driven in with a mallet, allowing the tops to project about 0.1 in., care being taken not to split them. The holes in the plugs are then care­fully reamed out, and stopped- with tow-wads which are pressed in firmly with a round stick.


 

 

 

 

 

PROJECTILES.

 

 

 

49.  Describe the process of loading spherical­ case shot.

The shot having been cleaned, the balls are put in.  A stick with a less diameter than the fuze hole, and having a groove on each side of it, is in­serted and pushed to the bottom of the chamber by working the balls aside. The shot is then placed in a sand-bath or oven, and brought to a proper temperature to receive the sulphur, which in a melted state is poured in to fill up the interstices between the balls; the shot is allowed to cool, and the sulphur to harden, when the stick is withdrawn, and the sulphur adhering to the sides of the eye and the surface of the shot is removed. If a fuze­-plug and paper-fuze arc to be used, the charge is poured in, and the plug inserted exactly as in ease of a shell; but, if the Bormann fuze is to be used the charge is inserted and the stopper and fuze screwed into their places, care being taken before placing the fuze in position to puncture the cover­ing of the magazine, so that the fire can communi­cate with the charge.

Spherical-case are now usually loaded by put­ting in the bullets and pouring melted sulphur or rosin in until the case is full. After the sulphur has cooled, the space for the powder is bored out by a cutter, which removes both the sulphur and portions of the bullets from the space. This is a quicker method, and gives a more compact projectile.

50.  What advantages does this mode of loading possess over the old one?

In the old mode there was a liability to acci­dents, and, if the powder remained in for any length of time before being used, it was ground up and

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

became impaired. By the new mode the powder can be placed in the small chamber, and allowed to remain without fear of damage or danger, and be ready for use when required. Being, besides, in a compact mass, instead of scattered among the bul­lets, its power is much greater, and it acts more effectively in throwing the bullets outward from the centre.

51.  Describe the process of filling MORTAR­-SHELLS.

Having been inspected to see that they are clean, dry, and in good order, place them on a block made for the purpose, or on rings of rope, or in indentations in the floor of the magazine, or on the ground, with the eyes up. The charge meas­ured out in a powder-measure is poured in through a funnel, and any incendiary composition, such as pieces of port-fire, rock-fire, &c., is inserted. In the mean time the fuze is cut to the proper length according to the range, by resting it in a groove made in the block, or inserting it in a hole made in a block, or in a post, and sawing it across with the fuze-saw; or the fuze may be bored through with a gimlet perpendicularly to the axis at the proper point. The fuze is then tried in the eye, and should enter ¾  of its length. If it does not, it may be reduced by rasping. The head of it is covered with tow to prevent the breaking of the composition, the fuze-setter placed on, and the fuze driven with the mallet until the head projects not more than 0.2 in. to 0.4 in. above the surface of the shell. These shells are generally filled and the fuzes driven in the battery magazines, as they are required.

 

 

 

 


PROJECTILES.

 

 

 

 

52.  How are shells for COLUMBIADS and HEAVY GUNS loaded?

In the same way as Mortar-shells; but as paper-­fuzes inserted in wooden or bronze fuze plugs are used instead of wooden fuzes, the plug only is driven into its place, and stopped with tow after the bursting charge has been poured through it into the shell.

53.  flow are condemned shot and shell marked?

With an X, made with the cold chisel.

54.  How should balls be preserved?

They should be carefully lacquered as soon as possible after they are received, When it becomes necessary to renew the lacquer, the old lacquer should be removed by rolling or scraping the balls, which should never be heated for that purpose.

55.  How should grape and canister shot be pre­served ?

They should be oiled or lacquered, put in piles, or in strong boxes on the ground floor, or in dry cellars; each parcel marked with its kind, calibre, and number.

56.  How are balls piled?

Balls are piled according to kind and calibre, under cover if practicable, in a place where there is a free circulation of air, to facilitate which the piles should be made narrow, if the locality permits; the width of the bottom tier may be from 12 to 14 balls according to calibre.

Prepare the ground for the base of the pile by raising it above the surrounding ground so as to throw off the water; level it, ram it well, and cover it with a layer of screened sand. Make the bottom of the pile with a tier of unserviceable

 

 

 

 


HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

balls buried about two-thirds of their diameter in the sand; this base may be made permanent: clean the base well and form the pile, putting the fuze­-holes of shells downwards in the intervals, and not resting on the shells below. Each pile is marked with the number of serviceable balls it contains. The bane may be made of bricks, concrete, stone, wood, or with borders and braces of iron.

57.  How should fired ammunition for cannon be stored?

Either in boxes or placed in piles, formed of two parallel rows of cartridges, with the sabots together; in 4 tiers for 12-pdr and 5 for 6-pdr; chock the lower tier with strips of weed fastened with small nails; put a layer of tow 2 in. thick between the shot; Jet the piles rest on planks, if there is no floor, and cover them with tarpaulins; have the place swept, and the cartridge-bags brushed off.  Leave a passage of 18 in. between the double rows, and keep them 2 feet from the walls. Fixed ammunition should not be put into powder-maga­zines, if it can be avoided; it should be kept in a dry place above the ground floor if practicable; the store-rooms should be always aired in fine weather, the piles should be taken down, and made up again every six months at most, the bags examined and repaired, and the damaged cartridges broken up. A ticket on each pile should show the number and kind of cartridges, the additions to the pile, and the issues.

58.  How should canisters be piled?

Like fixed ammunition, in 4 tiers for 24’s and 18’s; and 5 for 12’s and 6’s. Empty canisters in 10 or 12 tiers; the bottoms and covers separately.

 

 

 

 


PROJECTILES.

 

 

 

59.  How should CARTRIDGE-BAGS FILLED be piled?

Like fixed ammunition, or packed in boxes or barrels.

60.  How should LOADED SHELLS be piled?

On the ground floor of a secure building on planks, if the floor is not boarded; in 6 tiers at most; the fuzes of the lower tier in the vacant spaces between the shells; those of the other tiers turn downwards, like the fuze-holes of empty shells; the piles should be covered with a tarpaulin. Loaded shells should never be put into magazines, except from absolute necessity.

61.  How should FIRE-BALLS be preserved?

In a cool place, separated from each other by shavings or straw, if they are piled up.

62.  How is the number of shots or shells in a pile computed, of whatever form the pile may be?

By multiplying the sum of the three parallel edges, by one-third of the number of balls in a triangular face.

63.  What is meant by the three parallel edges of the pile?

Of the rectangular or long pile, they consist of the two largest bottom-rows and top-row; of the square pile, of two bottom-rows and top-shot; and of the triangular pile, of one bottom-row, the shot at the opposite angle, and that at the top.

64.  How is the number of shot in a triangular face computed?

Multiply the number in the bottom row, plus one, by half the number in the bottom row, for the number required.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK 0F ARTILLERY.

 

85.  How is the shot contained in the top row of a rectangular pile calculated?

One added to the difference between the long and short bottom rows will be the number required.

88.  How is the shot in an incomplete pile calcu­lated?

By first computing the number in the pile considered complete, then the number of what the upper part ought to consist; and the difference of these piles will be the number contained in the frustum or incomplete portion.

 

DIAMETERS OF SHOT, SHELLS, AND SPHERICAL-CASE.

 

15-in.

 

 

10-in.

 

5-in.

 

43

 

32

 

24

 

18

 

12

 

6

 

in.

12.87

 

in.

9.87

 

in.

7.88

 

in.

6.84

 

in.

6.25

 

 

in.

5.68

 

in.

5.17

 

in.

4.52

 

in.

3.58

 

WEIGHTS OF SHOT, SHELLS, AND SPHERICAL-CASE.

 

 

 

Columbiads

and

Sea-Coast Mortars

 

 

Mortars.

 

 

 

Guns and Howitzers

 

10

in.

 

 

8

in.

 

18

in.

 

10

in.

 

8

in.

 

42

 

32

 

24

 

18

 

12

 

6

 

Shot……….

Shells…….

Sper. Case

 

lbs.

129

101

lbs.

65

50

80

lbs.

 

197

lbs.

 

88.4

lbs.

 

44.5

lbs.

42.7

31

20.8

lbs.

32.6

22.5

16

lbs.

24.4

17

11.86

lbs.

18.5

13.4

8.7

lbs.

12.8

8.4

6.1

lbs.

6.1

 

8.06

 


The 8-inch Mortar Shell is used for the Siege Howitzer. The 15-inch shell is 14.85 in. diameter.

 

 

 

 

 

 

PROJECTILES.

 

 

WEIGHT OF CANISTER SHOT.

 

 

 

42

 

 

 

 

32

 

24 pr. Gun

and 8 in.

Siege Howit.

 

 

16

 

12pr. Gun

and 32 pr.

Howitzer

 

24 pr.

Howitzer

 

 

6

 

12-pr. Howitzer

 

Field

 

Mountain

 

lbs.

1.5

 

 

lbs.

1.14

 

lbs.

0.86

 

lbs.

0.64

 

lbs.

0.43

 

lbs.

0.32

 

lbs.

0.16

 

lbs.

0.21

 

Musket

Ball.

 

 

WEIGHTS OF FINISHED CANISTERS AND NUMBER OF SHOT.

 

 

 

Guns.

 

 

8 in. Howitzer.

 

 

 

 

 

Weights….

No. of Shot

 

 

42

 

 

32

 

24

 

18

 

12

 

Siege

 

Sea-

Coast

 

lbs.

40

27

 

lbs.

37

27

 

lbs.

29

27

 

lbs.

28

27

 

lbs.

15

27

 

lbs.

53.5

48

 

lbs.

54.5

48

 

 

WEIGHT OF GRAPE SHOT AND GRAPE-SHOT STANDS.

 

 

 

 

8-in.

 

 

42

 

32

 

24

 

18

 

12

 

Grape Shot

Stands……

lbs.

  6.1

75.5

 

lbs.

  4.2

51.2

lbs.

  3.15

39.7

lbs.

  2.4

30.6

lbs.

  1.8

22.1

lbs.

   1.14

14.8    

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

HAND-BOOK OF ARTILLERY.

 

 

 

WEIGHTS  OF FIXED AMMUNITION.

 

 

 

 

Weights

 

 

For Guns

 

 

For Howitzers.

 

12

 

6

 

32

 

24

 

12

 

 

12 pdr.

Mountain

 

  Shot strapped……..

  Shell strapped and

     charged……………

  Spherical   case,

      strapped and

      charged……………

Canister with

 

 

Round of Ammunition complete

{

Sabot

Shot

Shell

Spher-ical case

Can-ister

lbs.

12.75

 

9.52

 

 

12.17

14.80

15.40

12.17

 

 

14.70

 

16.91

lbs.

6.28

 

 

 

 

5.72

7.32

7.60

 

 

 

7.00

 

8.40

lbs.

 

 

24.64

 

 

32.72

28.50

 

27.70

 

 

35.82

 

31,60

 

lbs.

 

 

18.80

 

 

24.64

21.25

 

21.50

 

 

27.00

 

23.60

lbs.

 

 

9.35

 

 

12.20

10.80

 

10.50

 

 

13.65

 

11.85

lbs.

 

 

9.35

 

 

12.20

11.20

 

9.90

 

 

12.60

 

11.90

 

 

CHARGES FOR MORTAR SHELLS.

 

 

 

18-in.

 

 

10-in.

 

8-in.

 

Coe-

horn

 

 

 

Charge

{

 

of the shell filled with powder

to burst the shell

to blow out the fuze

 

Ordinary service

charge

{

 

Cannon powder

Incendiary match or

   other composition

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

lbs. oz.

11.0

5.0

0.6

 

 

7.0

 

0.8

 

lbs. oz.

5.0

2.0

0.5

 

 

8.0

 

0.6

 

lbs. oz.

2.9

1.0

0.4

 

 

1.12

 

0.6

 

lbs. oz.

1.0

0.8

0.9



 

 

PROJECTILES.

 

 

CHARGES FOR FIELD SHELLS.

 

 

32

pdr.

 

24

pdr.

 

12

pdr.

 

Remarks.

 

 

 

 

Powder

required

{

 

 

to fill the shell

to burst     do

to blow out the fuze-

  plug

for service charge

 

lbs. oz.

1   5

0 11

 

0  2

1  0

 

lbs. oz.

1  0

0  8

 

0  2

0 12

 

lbs. oz.

0  8

0  5

 

0  1

0  7

 

 

Rifle or mus-  ket powder

is used in  preference to  cannon.

 

 

CHARGES FOR SPHERICAL-CASE SHOT.

 

 

 

Charge

 

 

8-in.

 

42

 

32

 

24

 

18

 

12

 

6

 

No. of musket balls..

Bursting charge of

powder………….…oz.

Weight of shot load-

ed…………………..lbs.

 

486

 

15

 

59.5

 

306

 

9

 

39

 

245

 

8

 

30.13

 

 

175

 

6

 

22.15

 

120

 

5

 

16.3

 

82

 

4.5

 

11

 

41

 

2.5

 

5.5

 

 

CHARGES FOR SHELLS FOR COLUMBIADS AND

HEAVY GUNS.

 

 

Charge

 of powder

 

Columbiads.

 

 

For Guns.

 

 

 

10-in.

 

 

8-in.

 

42

 

32

 

24

 

18

 

 

12

 

 

 

To fill the shell…

To burst the shell

To blow out the

  fuze-plug……….

For ordinary ser-

  vice ……………..

 

lbs. oz.

3   4

1   8

 

0  10

 

3   0

 

 

lbs. oz.

1  12

1   0

 

0   8

 

1   9

 

lbs. oz.

1   8

0  12